History: Facts Important But Interpretation More So
Society, Culture, Religion, and Language
Space and Time
Different Religions Use Different Calendars

Dividing history into periods
First and Second
Third to Seventh
Ancient, Medieval, and Modern No More

For the dates of biblical books, persons, and events, I rely on "Septuagint Chronology," "The Biblical Chronology of James Ussher," and the biblical chronology of the ESV Study Bible (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2008)

Trinity: Father begets Son, Spirit proceeds from Father and Son, and together Father, Son, and Spirit enjoy a convivial relationship of truth, freedom, love, and vitality. 

Days of Convivial Companionship
(5500 BC)

Yahweh freely chooses to create Heaven and Earth as the perfect context for a covenantal relationship of truth, freedom, love, and vitality with human beings.

Yahweh freely chooses in love to create humans as beings who, by grace alone, share a covenantal relationship of truth, freedom, love, and vitality with him, one another, and the rest of creation.

5500 BC
5500 Creation of Heaven and Earth

The East
5500 Creation of the first two human beings: Adam (5500-4570 BC, 930 years) and Eve (5500-?)

Age of Olympianity (5500-2091 BC, 3409 years)

In Adam and Eve, human beings absurdly choose to reject their covenantal relationship of truth, freedom, love, and vitality with Yahweh, one another, and the rest of creation.

Instead of enjoying a covenantal relationship with Yahweh, human beings now are bullied, bribed, and deceived by powers of evil. They now absurdly choose to worship six false Olympian gods: (1) Jupiter, god of politics; (2) Mars, god of war; (3) Vulcan, god of technology; (4) Venus, goddess of sex; (5) Pluto, god of money; and (6) Bacchus, god of consumption.

Human beings no longer walk the path of freedom with Yahweh which is based on truth, expressed through love, and ends in eternal life. Instead they walk the path of power demanded by false gods which is expressed through indifference and leads to death.

Even the rest of creation suffers corruption as a result of their decision.

1. Fall to Flood (5500-3238, 2262 years)

5500 BC
The East
5500 The Fall
5499 Cain: first human being to be born

5300 BC
5271 Cain: first murderer. Human relationships marred by increasing violence.
         Cain: builder of first city
5270-3838 (1432 years) Birth of Adam's son Seth to birth of Noah

3900 BC 
The East
3838-2888 (950 years) Noah

3400 BC 
3336-2736 (600 years) Shem: second son of Noah and ancestor of all Semites including Arabs and Jews

3300 BC
3238 The Flood

2. Flood to Babel (3238-2707, 531 years)

Only Noah and his family, eight people in all, survive the Flood. Their descendants eventually choose to conspire against Yahweh at Babel. He responds to this unity of all people for evil by confusing their language and scattering them.

2900 BC
The East
2841-2437 (404 years) Eber: descendant of Shem (born 98 years before the Flood) and ancestor of all Hebrews including Abraham

The East
2707 Tower of Babel. Marked by the birth of Peleg, son of Eber, whose name means "Division."

3. Babel to Call of Abraham (2707-2091, 616 years)


2200 BC  
The East
2166-1991 (175 years) Abraham and his wife Sarah (2156-2029, 127 years)

The East
2092 Abraham leaves Ur with father Terah, wife Sarah, and nephew Lot
2091 Call of Abraham

2000 BC  
Olympia: The Bronze Age

2055-1650 Middle Kingdom

2000 BC
1990-1650 Memphis capital

Minos and Bulls
Minoan Civilization
Daedalus and Icarus
Europa and Cadmus
Mycenean Civilization

Age of Yahwism (2091 BC-1 AD, 2091 years)

Yahweh chooses to aid a scattered humanity by calling Abraham, blessing him, and blessing humanity through him and his descendants. 

1. Patriarchs (2091-1805, 286 years)

1921 BC
The East
Ussher's Annals: The Story of Abraham from Call to Death (1921-1821 BC)
Yahweh covenants with Abraham (1921) who leaves Haran for Canaan
God's Response to Our Break with Him
Abraham rescues Lot and kings of Sodom and Gomorrah (1912).
Ishmael (1910-1773, 137 years): son of Abraham and Hagar
Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews (1921-520)

1900 BC
The East
Babylon (1900-540)
Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (1897)
Isaac (1896-1716, 180 years)
     Sacrifice of Isaac (1871, aged 25 years)
     Temple Mount (on Mount Moriah)
Jacob (1836-1689, 147 years)
Ussher: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and Job (1821-1635)

Palace of Knossos (Crete, 1900): map, north entrance, throne room

1800 BC 
The East
Joseph (1745-1635)
Jacob returns to Canaan with his 2 wives, 2 concubines, 12 sons, and much wealth (1739).

2. Egyptian Sojourn (1728-1491)

Yahweh chooses to bless Israel's family and all Egyptians through Joseph.

Joseph is sold into slavery by his brothers and taken to Egypt (1728, aged 17).
Joseph correctly interprets Pharaoh's dream and is made governor of Egypt (1715, aged 30).
Seven years of plenty as predicted by Joseph (1715-1708).
Followed by seven years of famine (1708-1701).
Jacob and his entire family move to Egypt under Joseph's protection (1706).

1700 BC 
Death of Jacob (1689, aged 147)

Second Intermediate Period (1650-1550)
Hyksos (1650-1550)
Death of Joseph (1635, aged 110)

1600 BC
New Kingdom (1550-1069): extends control over Cush and into the Orient
Early 18th Dynasty (1500s-1400s)
Thebes: Valley of the Kings (1500s-1300s)
Thebes and Luxor
Book of Exodus (covers 1706-1491 BC; 215 years)
Miriam (1582-1452, 130 years)
Aaron (1574-1452, 122 years)
Ussher: Moses from His Birth to the Plagues of Egypt
Moses (1571-1451, 120 years). Moses flees Egypt (1531, aged 40)

The East
Job (1520)

Founding of Athens (1556, Ussher)

3. Exodus (1491)

Yahweh blesses his people with freedom and blesses humankind with this revelation of himself as Savior from the Olympian gods and their ruling minions.

1500 BC 
Ussher: Moses from the Exodus to His Death (1491-1451)
Moses sent back to Egypt by Yahweh (1491, aged 80)
Exodus (Tuesday, May 5, 1491--430 years after Abraham left Haran)

4. Wilderness (1491-1451)

Yahweh blesses his people with instruction (Law at Sinai) on how to live distinctly as his people.
Yahweh also blesses his people with his immediate presence in the Tent of Meeting.

The East
Leviticus (1491-1490; 1 year)
Numbers (1490-1451; 39 years)
Ten Commandments (June 1491)
Yahweh fills Tent of Meeting with his presence (April 1490)
Yahweh sends Israel back into the wilderness for 40 years (October 1490)
Deuteronomy (1451)
Moses dies (1451, aged 120)

5. Conquest (1451-1425)

Yahweh blesses his people with possession of the land he had promised--a place in which to live distinctly as his people according to his instruction to be blessed and to be a blessing.

Joshua (1451-1425, 26 years)
Israel crosses the Jordan and enters the Promised Land (April 30, 1451)
Ussher: Joshua and the Conquest of Canaan (1451-1445)
Tent of Meeting set up in Shiloh (1445)
Death of Joshua (1443)

6. Judges (1425-1095)

Yahweh's people persistently forsake him for Olympian gods. He just as persistently frees them from their faithlessness and enemies--spiritual and temporal.

Judges (1425-1120; 305 years)
Ussher: Dates from the Book of Judges (1405-1095)

1400 BC
Iron Age (1400-800)

The East
Ruth (1322-1312; 10 years)

Amenhotep 3rd (1390-1352): height of ancient Egyptian power
Akhenaten (1352-1336)
Nefertiti (1338-1336)
Tutankhamun (1336-1327)

1300 BC
The East
Deborah judge in Israel (ca 1292-1252)
Gideon rescues Israel from the Midianites (1245): Yahhwh vs. Mars

Ramses 2nd (1303-1213, r. 1279-1213): last pharaoh of significance
Names of God in the Old and New Testaments (Exodus 3:13-15)
Yahweh vs. Jupiter: Moses vs. Ramses
Yahweh vs. Pluto: Jubilee

1200 BC
Southeastern Olympia
Dark Age (1200-800)

Fall of Troy (1184)

The East
Phoenicia (1200-800)
Ussher: Dates of Events in the Books of 1 and 2 Samuel (1117-1015 BC)
1 Samuel (1171-1056; 115 years)
Samson (1155-1117; judge of Israel from 1137)

Early History of Carthage (1200-264)

7. Kingdom (1095-588)

Yahweh's people sin grievously by rejecting him as king and demanding a human one. After his warnings are also rejected, he grants their wish and gives them a king. At the same time, he calls individuals to serve him as prophets to challenge the power of kings in the name of Yahweh: the one true god of freedom.

1100 BC  
The East
Assyria (1100-600)
Saul becomes first human king of Israel and rules 40 years (1095-1055).
David (1085-1015, 70 years; r. 1055-1015): David and Goliath
2 Samuel (1056-1017; 39 years)
1 Chronicles (1056-1015; 41 years)
David takes Jerusalem (1048)

David wants to replace the Tent of Meeting with a permanent house (temple) for Yahweh. Through Nathan the prophet, Yahweh tells David that, in response, Yahweh will make David's house (dynasty) permanent.

David moves Ark of the Covenant to Zion (1045)
David commits adultery with Bathsheba wife of Uriah the Hittite (1035): Yhwh vs. Venus
Solomon (1034-975, 59 years; r. 1015-975)
2 Chronicles (1015-588; 427 years)
Proverbs (1015, 1000, 700)
Ussher: Kings 1 (1015-897 BC)
1 Kings (1015-897; 118 years)
Song of Solomon (1014)

Yahweh, just as was present everywhere but also chose to be present in a special way in the Tent of Meeting above the Ark of the Covenant, so now he chooses to be present in that same special way in the Temple constructed by Solomon.

Construction of the Temple (1012-1005)
Ark of the Covenant moved to Temple (1004)

1000 BC
The East
Ecclesiastes (977)

Yahweh punishes the faithlessness of Solomon by separating 10 tribes from the control of his son.
Rehoboam and Jeroboam
United Kingdom of Israel and Judah splits in two (975)
Jeroboam, first king of Israel, leads Israel into a perpetual sin named after him (975)
Shishak, king of Egypt, strips Jerusalem of Solomon's fabulous wealth (971)
Omri, king of Israel, makes Samaria Israel's new capital city (924)
Ahab and Elijah (r. 918-897).
Ministry of Elijah (918-896)
Ahab's daugher Athaliah marries Jehoram son of Jehoshaphat and gives birth to Ahaziah (907).

Sense of Adventure: on Jason and his Argonauts

900 BC
The East
Jezebel, princess of Sidon and Ahab's wife, has Naboth murdered (899)
Ussher: Kings 2 (Death of Ahab to Destruction of Israel, 897-722 BC)
Death of Ahab in battle (897)
2 Kings (896-588; 308 years)
Elijah taken to Heaven (896)
Joram, son of Ahab, rules Israel (896-884)
Jehoram, husband of Athaliah, rules Judah (889-885)
Obadiah (887)
Ahaziah, son of Athaliah, rules Judah (885-884)
Jehu murders Ahab's wife Jezebel, Ahab's son Joram, king of Israel, and Ahab's grandson Ahaziah, king of Judah. Jehu rules in Israel while Athaliah takes control of Judah (884).
Jehoiada, high priest in Jerusalem, anoints Athaliah's grandson Joash king and has Athaliah murdered (878).
Jonah (862)
Jeroboam 2nd rules Israel (r. 825-784).
Uzziah rules Judah (r. 810-759)

Early History of Carthage (814-264)

800 BC
Expansion of the Roman State (753 BC-AD 117)

The East
Joel (800)
Amos (797-787; 10 years): Yahweh vs. Bacchus
Hosea (785-725; 60 years)
Pul, repentant king of Assyria after Jonah, invades Israel at Yahweh's command (771)
Isaiah (760-698; 62 years)
The Ministry of Isaiah
Jotham rules Judah (759-742)
Isaiah's vision of Yahweh's throne (759)
Micah (750-710; 40 years)
Ahaz rules Judah (742-726).
Isaiah speaks to Ahaz of sign of Immanuel (742)
Accurate Predictions: Isaiah predicts the fall of Babylon
Nahum prophesies during rule of Ahaz (742-726)
Hezekiah rules Judah (726-698)

Yahweh punishes the faithlessness of the Kingdom of Israel by allowing the Assyrians to remove them permanently from the Promised Land.

Ussher: Kings 3 (Fall of Israel to Fall of Judah, 721-588 BC)
Assyria under Shalmaneser destroys the Kingdom of Israel (721)
Nahum (713)
Yahweh destroys Assyrian army under Sennacherib before it besieges Jerusalem (710)


Romulus: Founder of Rome (771-716, r. >753)
History of Rome (753-264)

First Olympics (776)
Homer (c. 750)
Hesiod (c. 750)

700 BC
Late Period (664-332)
Assyrians sack Memphis (671) then Thebes (664) and take control of Egypt
Nekau 2nd (Neco) (610-595) against Josiah (609)

Sappho (c. 630-c. 570)

The East
Manasseh is king of Judah (r. 698-643, 55 years). Has Isaiah murdered.
Judith beheads the Assyrian general Holophernes and saves Judah (656)
Josiah rules Judah (641-610)
     Josiah's Example of Public Repentance (631)
Zephaniah (630)
Jeremiah (629-588; 41 years)
     Jeremiah and the End of Judah
Habakkuk (626)

8. Exile (607-537)

Yahweh punishes the faithlessness of his people in the Kingdom of Judah by depriving them of his special immediacy in the Temple, their Davidic king, and the Promised Land.

Daniel (607-534; 73 years). A young Daniel is among the first group exiled to Babylon.

600 BC
The East
Deportation of upper and middle classes from Jerusalem to Babylon (599). These include Mordecai and Ezekiel.
Hananiah predicts a speedy return of refugees from Babylon, is rebuked by Jeremiah, and dies (596)
Ezekiel (595-574; 21 years)
Ussher: Destruction of First Temple to Construction of Second (588-515 BC)
Nebuchadnezzar's army takes control of Judah, destroys Jerusalem, and burns down Temple (588)
Lamentations (588)
Obadiah (588)
Jeremiah and Baruch are taken to Egypt (587)
Siege of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar (584-572) ends in its surrender and looting
Construction of Hanging Gardens in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar (570)
Nebuchadnezzar driven by madness into the wilderness (569-563)
Nebuchadnezzar restored by Yahweh and returns to Babylon where he dies (562)
Daniel's vision of four beasts/empires (555)
The Persian Empire (540-330)
Daniel thrown into lion's den (538)
Cyrus conquers Babylon (538). Daniel interprets writing on wall for Balshazzar, king of Babylon, just before the army of Cyrus captures him.

9. Return (537-416)

Yahweh demonstrates his faithfulness to his own word and his people by restoring a remnant of them to the Promised Land and enabling them to build a new temple.

Cyrus supports return of Jews to Jerusalem and gives back Temple treasures taken from them (537)
Second Temple Judaism (538 BC-AD 70): No Magical Thinking
Ussher: Second Temple to Last Prophet (515-416 BC)
Ezra (536-457; 80 years)
The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem: about 50,000 Jews return there (537)
Daniel has last vision (ch. 10-12) and dies shortly thereafter (535)
Death of Cyrus (529)
Persian army conquers Egypt. Deports Pythagoras with thousands of others to Babylon (525)
Artaxerxes becomes ruler of Persia and stops work on Temple (523)
Darius rules Persia (529-485). In Esther, he's called Ahaseurus; his wife Atossa, Vashti.
Esther (521-509; 12 years)
Darius executes Artaxerxes (519)
Darius rejects Vashti (518) and replaces her with Esther (514). Story of Esther unfolds now.
Haggai (520)
Zechariah (520-487; 33 years)
Second Temple finished (515)

Solon and Aesop together with Croessus king of Sardis (561)
Thales of Miletus (611-547), first philosopher, encourages student Pythagoras to continue studies in Egypt.
Cyrus conquers Ionian municipal states on west coast of Anatolia (546)
Athenians help Ionian cities in Anatolia rebel against Darius (502-500).
Anaxagoras (ca 500-ca 430): philosopher

500 BC
The East
Xerxes (485-473)
Artaxerxes (473-425)
Ezra leads group of Jews to Jerusalem (467)
Nehemiah (446-434; 11 years)
     The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem
Nehemiah becomes governor of Jerusalem (454).

10. Silence (416-5 BC)

Yahweh speaks to his people one last time through the prophet Malachi. Then he invites them to wait, indefinitely, until he speaks to them again. He does so again, finally, to Zechariah who then becomes the father of John the Baptist.

Malachi--last Old Testament prophet (416 [or 397 Scofield])

Athens: 3000-479 BC
     Classical Athens: Democracy, Victory, Theater (508-406),
     Foolishness, Truth, and Beauty (479-431)
     Stunning Creativity Despite Suicidal War (431-404),
     Twilight (404-323)
     Sublimity and Stupidity (508-323),
Sparta (1200-500)
Pindar (522-443)
Persian military destroys Miletus (497)
Battle of Marathon (490)
Herodotus (484-424)
Thermopylae (480)
Battle of Salamis (480)
Battle of Plataea (479)
Plague ravages Athens (430). Hippocrates aids victims. It claims Pericles and his teacher Anaxagoras (428).
Plato (428-348)
Xenophon's expedition (401; written in 370)

400 BC
Battle of Leuctra (370): Thebes breaks Spartan power
Alexander (356-323, r. 336)
     Ussher: Alexander 3rd of Macedon (356-323 BC)
Demosthenes encourages Athens to rebel against Alexander (335)
Alexander visits Diogenes (335)

Alexander visits Troy and makes sacrifices to Achilles (334)
Battle of Granicus River (334): first victory against Darius 3rd (380-330, r. 336) but Alexander almost dies
Alexander cuts Gordian knot (333)

Nectanebo 2nd (360-343): last native Egyptian pharaoh
Alexander conquers Egyptia and founds Alexandria (331)

The East
Battle of Guagamela (331): Alexander destroys Persian army and takes control of Persian empire

300 BC
Eastern Olympia
Hellenic Culture in Eastern Olympia (after 323)

Western Olympia

First Punic War (264-241)

Alexandria: Great Library (285 BC-AD 391), Eratosthenes (276-194), Septuagint (c. 250),
Manetho: History of Egypt (c. 250)

100 BC
Virgil (70-19)
Octavius Caesar (63 BC-AD 14)
Livy (59 BC-AD 17)
Ovid (43 BC-AD 17)

Cleopatra (69-30)

11. New Word

Yahweh breaks the silence he sustained since Malachi (416 BC), ending the long drought of his people, with his new word to Zechariah.

The East
Angel Gabriel tells Zechariah of future birth of his son John the Baptist (6)
Gabriel tells Mary of future birth of her son Jesus (5)
John the Baptist (5 BC-AD 32)

Age of Christianity (AD 1-632)

In Jesus Christ, singularly Son of God and Son of Man, Yahweh fulfills the meaning of history since the creation of Adam and Eve (4004 BC) as well as the meaning of his people Israel (since 1921 BC). In Jesus Christ, Yahweh decisively defeated all powers of evil and liberated us from the penalty of sin. Objectively saved by Jesus Christ, each person may now witness to that salvation by walking with Jesus Christ on the path of freedom and sharing his truth, love, and vitality with others. The privilege of Christians and churches since Pentecost has been to intentionally do just that and to invite others to join them.

1. Victory of Jesus Christ (AD 1-33)

AD 1
Christianity: Chronology (to 1992)

The East
Jewish Context AD 1
Diaspora Judaism (AD 1)
Ussher: Jesus Christ 

2. Eyewitnesses (AD 33-100)

Paul (4 BC-AD 67)
     Birth to Conversion (AD 1-32)
     Years of Transition (32-49),
     Painful Years, Liberating Letters (49-61)
     Ussher: The Life and Times of the Apostle Paul (5 BC-AD 67)
Luke (6 BC-AD 33; 40 years)
Matthew (5 BC-AD 33; 38 years)
Mark (26-33; 7 years)
John (26-33; 7 years)
Acts (33-65; 30 years)
The Strange Journey of the First Church (AD 33-66)
Greek Christian Jews from Jerusalem make first Gentile converts in Antioch (40)
1 and 2 Thessalonians sent from Corinth (54)
Galatians sent from Ephesus (58)
1 Corinthians sent from Ephesus (59)
2 Corinthians sent from Macedonia (60)
Romans sent from Corinth (60)
James (60)
1 Peter (60)
Roman persecution of Christians (64-313): Courage or Compromise?
Church Chronology: Years of Growth Despite Persecution
EphesiansPhilippiansColossiansPhilemon, and Hebrews sent from Rome (64)
Construction of Herod's Temple is completed (65)
Paul, released but not acquitted, travels. From Philippi, he sends 1 Timothy and Titus (65)
Paul acquitted in Rome. Writes 2 Timothy (66)
2 Peter (66)
Jude (66)
Jewish History: Six Challenging Times (first, Jewish Rebellion, 66-70)

1, 2, and 3 John (after 90)
Revelation (96)

Pontius Pilate commits suicide in Rome (39)
Nero persecutes Christians in Rome (64)
Apostles Peter and Paul executed in Rome (67)

First-Century Judaism
Mark, evangelist, takes Good News to Alexandria and dies there (61)

Eastern Olympia
Early History of Eastern Olympian Churches (70-451)
Five Disasters Befalling Jews (70-500)
Changes between Judaism and Christianity (70-570)
The Growth of Anti-Semitism (70-718)

Contraction of the Roman State (117-486)


Pantheon (128)

Plutarch (c. 45-120)

St. Barbara (285-303)

The Rise and Decline of the Talmud (200-1700s)

Anthony of the Desert (c. 251-356)
Catherine of Alexandria (280-305)

Important Developments in Fourth-century Christianity
Jerome (c. 345-420)

Mount Sinai: Monastery of St. Catherine

Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
Disentangling Church and Empire

The Real Patrick (373-463)
Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna (completed 547)
Dionysius the Humble

Theodora (500-48)
Hagia Sophia (537)

Age of Islam (632-1648)

Islam: Chronology (622-1995)
Muslim Call to Prayer
Expansion of the Arab Muslim Caliphate (634-732)



Greek Christendom
Byzantine Iconoclasm (730-787, 815-843)

First Look at Charlemagne (742-814, r. >768)

Latin Christendom
Jewish Society in Latin Christendom (800-1100)
Jewish Movements of Reform (800-1800)

First Look: Vikings (Caledonia, 793)

Greek Christendom

Greek Christian Expansion (863-988)

Islamic Iberia: The Golden Age (921-1031)

The Decline of Islamic Iberia (1031-1492)
El Cid (1043-1099)

The East
The First Crusade (1095-1099)

Latin Christendom
The Decline of Jewish Society in Latin Christendom (1100-1750)

Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)

Jews in Iberia (1150-1500)

The East

Knights Hospitaler and Templar
Second and Third Crusades (1147-49, 1189-92)

Latin Christendom
The Decline and Fall of Latin Christian Civilization (1200-1648)
Thomas Aquinas (1225-74)

Francis of Assisi (1181-1226): Prayer
Jesus, the Church, and Pluto

Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)

Fifth and Sixth Crusades (1217-1221, 1228-1229)
Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Crusades (1248-1250, 1270, 1271-1272)

Latin Christendom
Avignon Papacy (1309-77)
Great Schism (1378-1417)

The Plague (1347-51)

John Wycliffe (ca 1325-84, >1367)

Jan Hus (ca 1369-1415, >1391)

Santa Maria del Fiore (1296-1434)
Dante (1265-1321)
Giotto (1267-1337)
Petrarch (1304-74)
Boccaccio (1313-75)

Chora Church (1321)

Latin Christendom

Joan of Arc (1412-31)

Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455)
Donatello (1386-1466)
Cosimo de' Medici (1389-1464)
Fra Angelico in Florence (1438-45)
Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445-1510)
Lorenzo de' Medici (1449-92)
Savonarola 1452-98): His Rise, His Fall
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): Mona Lisa (1519)
Michelangelo (1465-1564): Pieta (1499)David (1504)
Machiavelli (1469-1527)

Florence: Santa Maria del Fiore

Latin Christendom
Julius 2nd (r. 1503-13)
Erasmus (1466-1536, >1511)

John Colet (1467-1519)
     Icarus (1558)
     Bruegel: Auden's Thoughts (1939)
John Calvin (1509-64, fl. >1541)
Caravaggio (1571-1610): David

Nonconformity in Britannia
Daniel Defoe (ca 1660-1731)
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

Francisco de Goya (1746-1828): Chapel of Saint Anthony (1798)

Goethe (1749-1832)

Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Mozart (1756-91)
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827): Early Years (1770-1802), Later Years (1802-1827)

Baal Shem Tov (1698-1760)

Napoleon in Egypt:
     Battle of the Pyramids (1798)
     Battle of the Nile (1798)
     Revolt in Cairo (1798)
     Siege of Acre (1799)
     Napoleon's Institute of Egypt (1798)
     Rosetta Stone (1799)
     Out of Egypt (1799)

The Declaration of Independence (1776)
The Bill of Rights (1791)

Western Europe
Jewish Advances, Archaism, and Activism (1880-1930)

Jane Austen (1775-1817)
Elizabeth Fry (1780-1845)
Charles Dickens (1812-70): A Christmas Carol (1843)
Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923): Tower (1889)
Auguste Rodin (1840-1917)
Eric Satie (1866-1925): Gymnopedie No. 1 (1888)
Marie Curie (1867-1934): Early Years, Later Life
Montmartre: Belle Epoque (1889-1914)
Vincent van Gogh: Finding His Way (1853-1886), End (1886-90)
Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834): Barth and Schleiermacher

Soren Kierkegaard (1813-55)

Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926)

Ludwig van Beethoven: Later Years (1802-27)
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
Franz Liszt: Early Life (1811-39), Later Life (1839-86)
      Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (1847)
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901): La Traviata (1853)
Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-65)
Budapest: Great Synagogue (1859)
Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)

Mussorgsky (1839-81): Night on Bald Mountain (1867), Pictures at an Exhibition (1874)
Tchaikovsky (1840-93): Swan Lake (1876)
Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910): Tolstoy on the Conventional Church (1880)

Port Said (1859)
Ferdinand de Lesseps and the Suez Canal (1859-69)


Dividing the 20th Century into Four Parts: 1900-14, 1914-45, 1945-73, 1973-2001
Catastrophe (1933-1945)
W. H. Auden (1907-73): Bruegel: Auden's Thoughts (1939)

James Joyce (1882-1941)
Salvador Dali (1904-89)
Henri Bergson's Creative Response (1941)
Albert Camus (1913-60): The Plague (1947)

The German Church: Death by a Thousand Smaller Compromises

Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943): Early Life
The Apollo Program (1961-1972) 

Age of Chastened Christianity (2008-Now)

Jesus, the Church, and the Olympian Gods Today
      Jesus, the Church, and Jupiter 
      Jesus, the Church, and Mars
      Jesus, the Church, and Vulcan
      Jesus, the Church, and Venus
      Jesus, the Church, and Pluto
      Jesus, the Church, and Bacchus

Collapse of the Global Technological System
      Harmful Ways of Responding to the Civilizational Collapse We're Experiencing
      Irreversible Global Collapse Has Already Started Because of Too Much Debt
      Cause of Catastrophic Collapse: Too Much Borrowing, Too Many Derivatives
      Derivatives: Reckless Criminal Gambling Hastening Civilizational Collapse
      Preparing Ourselves for Difficulties by Thinking about All Possibilities
      Stripping Olympian Elites of Unmerited Glory
      Too Many Asset Bubbles Bursting Will Hasten Economic Collapse
      Collapse of US Dollar as World Reserved Currency

Collapse of Western Civilization
      Morris Berman on the Decline of Western Civilization
      One Sign of Civilizational Collapse: Accelerating Inequality
      More Signs: Increasing Ignorance and Spiritual Death
      Civilizational Collapse: The Example of Rome
      The Monastic Response to Rome's Fall
      Lessons on Cultural Preservation
      Discerning Our Historical Context
      Good Enlightenment Gone Bad?
      Describing a Monastic Response to Collapse
      Examples of New Monastic Individuals Today
      Possible Futures

The Collapse of Our World and Our Creative Response to It

Today's Deadly Technocratic Rivalries
Certain Economic Collapse and Looming Nuclear War

Freedom from Collapsing Global Technological System Starts by Repudiating Its 1648 Roots
Will Faithfulness Follow Collapse, Denial, Idolatry, and Indifference? 

A Summary of the Continuing Fukushima Disaster
Christian Reflections on the Fukushima Disaster

Venezuela: What Happens When Economies Collapse

How Many Thousands of Churches and Seminaries Will Soon Go Bankrupt?
Politicization of Church Will Soon Lead to Its Persecution
Which Would We Prefer: Good News,  Bad News, or No News?
Context: Meaningless Technology, Silence of God, Yet Hope
The Crisis of Olympian Leadership in the World and Our Churches

Moving Now into the Future

Responding Nobly to the Presidency of Donald Trump
Are Hurricanes Meaningful?
How Puerto Rico Foreshadows the Near Future of the GTS

End Times
False Saviors and Final Rebellions (2 Thessalonians 2:1-10)

New Age of Convivial Companionship

How Crowded Is Hell?