When popes took to commanding armies in a manner pleasing to Mars, they exposed themselves—and the people of Rome with them—to military attack. In 1527, mutinous armies of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, sacked the city of Rome. They even trapped Pope Clement 7th in nearby Castle Sant’Angelo until he paid an enormous ransom.
Many opponents of papal policy, such as the Bohemian supporters of Jan Hus and Martin Luther, welcomed this destruction of the city. They understood it as the just punishment deserved by the ruler and leaders of the Latin Church.
Charles (emperor) and Clement (pope) eventually overcame their differences. The emperor agreed to support the pope’s family (the Medicis) in Florence while the pope agreed to publicly acknowledge Charles as emperor by crowning him
At this time Michelangelo painted The Last Judgment on the wall behind the altar of the Sistine Chapel.
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