Saturday, February 23, 2019

The Biblical Chronology of James Ussher

     The following is a summary of important dates found in Ussher, James. Annals of the World (1658). Revised and updated by Larry and Marion Pierce. Green Forest, Arkansas: Master Books, 2003.

     4004 BC: Sunday, October 23, in the middle of which God created light (Gen. 1:1-5; cf. Job 38:7 [angels singing]) (P1, 2). The first day of creation started at 6 pm the evening before. “And there was evening and there was morning, the first day” (Gen. 1:5b, English Standard Version).
     Monday, October 24: second day (Gen. 1:6-8) (P3).
     Tuesday, October 25: third day (Gen. 1:9-13) (P4).
     Wednesday, October 26: fourth day (Gen. 1:14-19) (P5).
     Thursday, October 27: fifth day (Gen. 1:20-23) (P6).
     Friday, October 28: sixth day. On this day, God creates man, male and female, in his image (Gen. 1:24-31) (P7).
     Saturday, October 29: seventh day. God rests on this first Sabbath (Gen. 2:1-3; cf. Ex. 31:13, 17; Heb. 4:4, 9, 10) (P8).
     Sunday, October 30: eighth day.
     Monday, October 31: ninth day.
     Tuesday, November 1: tenth day. “It is very probable, that Adam was turned out of paradise the same day that he was brought into it. This seems to have been on the 10th day of the world. (November 1st)” (P11). Later it became the Day of Atonement (Lev. 23:27) and of the annual fast referred to by the apostle Paul (Acts 27:9) (P13).
     On this day, the Devil tempts the woman through a serpent (Gen. 3:1-4). Consequently, he was later referred to as “that ancient serpent” (Rev. 12:9, 20:2) (P10).
     Yhwh assured the Devil that one day the seed of the woman would crush his head (Gen. 3:15). This promised was fulfilled by Jesus Christ (1 John 3:8, Rom. 16:20) (P10).
     4003 BC: birth of Cain (Gen. 4:1).
     3874 BC: birth of Seth (Gen. 4:25). Adam and Eve are both aged 130 (Gen. 5:3) (P13).
     3382 BC: birth of Enoch (Gen. 5:18) (P18).
     3074 BCDeath of Adam aged 930 (Gen. 5:5) (P21).
     3017 BC: Enoch, aged 365 years, does not die but is taken by God (Gen. 5:24, Heb. 11:5) (P22).
     2962 BC: Death of Seth aged 912 (Gen. 5:8) (P23).
     2948 BCBirth of Noah (Gen. 5:29) (P24).
     2469 BC: Yhwh calls Noah, as a preacher of righteousness for the sake of repentance, 120 years before the Flood (Gen. 6:3, 1 Pt. 3:20, 2 Pt. 2:5) (P29).
     2448 BC: When Noah is 500 years old, his first son Japheth is born (Gen. 5:32, 10:21) (P30).
     2446 BC: Two years later, Noah’s second son Shem is born (Gen. 11:10) (P31).
     2349 BC: Death of Methuselah aged 969 years—longest living human (Gen. 5:27) (P33).
     2349 BC: Sunday, November 30: Yhwh warns Noah that he must enter the Ark in a week. The world is oblivious to the impending catastrophe (Gen. 7:1, 4, 10; Mt. 24:38) (P34).
     Sunday, December 7: In his 600th year, Noah enters the Ark with his family and a pair of every kind of animal. It rains for 40 days and 40 nights and afterward the Earth remains flooded for 150 days (Ge 7:4, 6, 11-13, 17, 24) (P35).
     2348 BC: Wednesday, May 6: The Ark comes to rest on the mountains of Ararat (Gen. 8:3-4) (P36).
     Sunday, July 19: Land—the tops of mountains—is seen for the first time since the Flood began (Gen. 8:5) (P37).
     Friday, August 28: After 40 days, Noah opens a window and sends out a raven (Gen. 8:6-7) (P38).
     Friday, September 4: Noah sends out a dove but she returns (Gen. 8:8).
     Friday, September 11: Noah sends her out once again. Later that evening she returns with an olive leaf in her bill (Gen. 8:10-11).
     Friday, September 18: After Noah sends her out a third time, she does not return (Gen. 8:12) (P39).
     2348 BC: Friday, October 23: the first day of the world after the Flood. Noah is 601 years old. The Earth has dried and Noah removes the covering over the Ark (Gen. 8:13) (Paragraph [P]40).
     Thursday, December 18: Yhwh calls Noah, his family, and all the animals with him to leave the Ark (Gen. 8:14, 15, 19) (P41).
     2346 BC: Shem is 100 years old when his son Arphaxad is born two years after the Flood (Gen. 11:10) (P44).
     2311 BC: Arphaxad is 35 years old when his son Salah is born (Gen. 11:12) (P45).
     2281 BC: Salah is 30 years old when his son Eber is born (Gen. 11:14). Eber is the ancestor of all Hebrews (P46).
     2247 BC: Eber is 34 years old when his son Peleg (“Division”) is born (Gen. 11:16). The boy was given the name “Division” because in his days the Earth was divided (Gen. 10:25). Noah divided the land between his grandsons.
     Before taking control of their lands, these grandsons and their families migrated from the mountains of Ararat to the Valley of Shinar (Gen. 11:2). There they started to build a great tower to the heavens to make a name for themselves. Yhwh, however, confused their language and scattered them abroad. The tower came to be known as Babel (Gen. 11:9) and its city Babylon. Scattered abroad, the grandsons of Noah and their families settled in their lands according to their languages (P47).
     2234 BC: Babylon would be captured by Alexander the Great in 331 BC or in 1903 years. Babylon lies in the land of Nimrod which was named after that mighty warrior (Gen. 10:8-10, 1 Chr. 1:10; cf. Jer. 5:15, Mic. 5:6). According to Josephus, it was Nimrod who built Babylon and organized the construction of the tower there (P49).
     2188 BC: The Egyptian state is founded and continues for 1663 years until conquered by Persia in 525 BC. It was in this year that Mizraim, son of Ham, son of Noah, led his family into the land of the Nile. This is why Egypt is sometimes referred to in the Bible as both the land of Ham and of Mizraim (Ps. 105:23, 27; 106:21-22) (P51).
     2126 BC: Terah, father of Abraham, is born (Gen. 11:24) (P54).
     2056 BC: Terah’s oldest son Haran is born when he is aged 70 (Gen. 11:26) (P58).
     1998 BCNoah dies at the age of 950 (Gen. 9:29) (P62).
     1996 BCAbra[ha]m is born. He was 75 when his father Terah died aged 205 (Gen. 11:32; 12:1, 4; Acts 7:4) (P63).
     1986 BC: Sarai, daughter of Haran, is born (Gen. 11:29-30, 17:17) (P64).
     1925 BC: Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, conquers Sodom, Gomorrah, Zoar, and other cities. He controls them for 12 years (Gen. 14:1, 2, 4) (P68).
     1922 BCYhwh calls Abram out of the city of Ur of the Chaldeans (Gen. 11:1-32, 15:7; Jos 24:2, 3; Neh. 9:7; Acts 7:2-4; cf. Dan. 2:2,10; 4:7; 5:11). Abram leaves with his father Terah, wife Sarai, and Lot (son of the deceased brother of Terah named Haran). Together they make it as far as (the city of) Haran. There Terah dies aged 205 (Gen. 11:31-32) (P70).
     1921 BC: Yhwh calls Abram to leave his old way of living and promises that he will bless Abram and the nations through Abram (Gen. 12:1-2, Acts 7:4). From the day that Abram, Sarai, and Lot leave Haran, Abram and his descendants spend a total of 430 years as strangers and pilgrims in foreign lands (Ex. 12:40-41, Gal. 3:7). They leave on 15 Abib (which, in 1921BC, was Wednesday, May 4). His descendants would leave Egypt on that same day 430 years later.
     Abram is 75 years old when he leaves Haran. He stops first at Shechem at the Oak of Morah (Gen. 12:4-6; cf. Gen. 35:4, Jos. 24:25-26, Jud 9:6). He moves on to Luz (later known as Bethel) (Gen. 28:19) and then continues  southward toward Egypt (Gen. 12:7-9) (Paragraph [P]72).
     A famine briefly forces Abram and Sarai to sojourn in Egypt (Gen. 12:10-20) (P73).
     Back in Canaan, Lot separates from Abram and moves to Sodom (P74). Abram lives near Hebron in the Plain of Mamre (Gen. 13:4) (P74).
     1913 BC: Bera, king of Sodom, and other rulers allied with him rebel against the king of Elam (Gen. 14:4) (P75).
     1912 BC: Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and his allies attack the rebellious kings, defeat them, plunder Sodom and Gomorrah, and take many prisoners including Lot. When Abram hears of this, he leads 318 of his own servants, allies with others, and attacks Chedorlaomer’s combined forces at Dan. He defeats those forces, rescues all the prisoners including Lot, and recovers all the stolen goods. On his return, Abram is blessed by Melchizedek, king of Salem and priest of the Most High God (Gen. 14:1-24) (P76).
     Abram grieves because he has no son and heir. Yhwh promises him as many as the stars in the sky. Yhwh also warns him that his descendants will suffer persecution for 400 years until he brings them into the Promised Land (Gen. 15:1-21) (P77).
     1910 BC: Abram has a son by Hagar, his wife’s Egyptian servant, when he is 86 years old (Gen. 16:15-17, 17:24-25) (P78).
     1897 BC: When Abram is 99 years old, Yhwh makes a covenant with him to grant him a son by Sarai the following year. Abram, his son Ishmael (now 13), and all the other males in Abram’s household circumcise themselves as commanded by Yhwh (Gen. 17:21-26) (P81).
     Sodom, Gomorrah, and surrounding cities are destroyed by Yhwh (Gen. 19:1-29; cf. 2 Pet.
2:6-7; Rev. 19:20, 20:10, 21:8) (P82).
     Abraham and Sarah sojourn with the Philistines under Abimelech at Gerar (Gen. 20:1-18) (P84).
     1896 BCIsaac is born to Abraham (100 years) and Sarah (90 years) (Gen. 17:7). At the same time, Ammon and Moab are born to Lot (Gen. 19:30-38) (P85).
     1891 BC: Isaac is weaned. Ishmael jests with, mocks (same word in Gen. 39:14) or persecutes (Gal. 4:29) his little half-brother Isaac. Ishmael and and his mother Hagar are sent away (Gen. 21:8, 12; Rom. 9:7-8; Gal. 4:29, Heb. 11:17-18).
     We are told that 430 years elapsed between the time Abraham left Haran and the Exodus (Ex. 12:35, 36, 41; Gal. 4:29). We also know that Abraham and his descendants will experience 400 years of persecution. That persecution starts now, when Abraham has been in Canaan for 30 years and Isaac is now 5 years old (Gen. 15:13-14, Acts 7:6, Gal. 4:29). Ishmael is 18 years old when he and his mother Hagar leave Abraham for the second and final time (P86).
     1871 BC: The sacrifice of Isaac (Gen. 22; cf. Heb. 11:17, 19) (P90).
     1859 BCSarah dies in Hebron at the age of 127. Abraham buys the cave in the field of Machpelah to bury Sarah in. It is his first possession in the land (Gen. 23: 1, 2, 19, 20). Abraham is father of the faithful (Rom. 4:11-12); Sarah, their mother (1 Pet. 3:6).
     1856 BC: Aged 40, Isaac marries Rebekah (Gen. 24:67, 25:20) (P93).
     1846 BC: Death of Shem, the son of Noah, 500 years after the birth of Arphaxad (Gen. 11:11) (P96).
     1837 BC: After 19 years of being barren, Rebekah conceives twins (Gen. 25:21).
     1836 BC: Isaac is 60 years old when Rebekah gives birth to Esau and Jacob (Gen. 25:22, Hos. 12:3) (P98).
     1821 BCDeath of Abraham, aged 175, 100 years after he left Haran. Jacob is 15 years old (Gen. 25:7, 10; cf. Heb. 11:9) (P101).
     1817 BC: Death of Eber, 430 years after the birth of his son Peleg (Gen. 11:17). As a descendent of Eber, Abraham was called the Hebrew (Gen. 14:13). Later all the descendants of Jacob would be called by the same name (Gen. 40:15) (P102).
     1796 BC: Esau, aged 40, marries two Hittite women (Gen. 26:34-35; cf. Gen. 27:46, 28:8) (P105).
     1773 BC: Death of Ishmael aged 137 (Gen. 25:17) (P108).
     1760 BC: Isaac, blind 44 years before his death, is tricked into giving Esau’s blessing to Jacob (Gen. 27:28-29). Jacob flees to extended family in Mesopotamia to avoid being murdered by his twin brother Esau (Gen. 27:41) (P111).
     As a result of a vision Jacob has in Luz, he changes its name to Bethel (“House of God”).
     Jacob arrives at the house of Laban, his uncle, and, after a month, asks Laban for his permission to marry Laban’s daughter Rachel (Gen. 27:1, 29:20). Jacob is 77 years old (P112).
     Jacob marries Leah, then Rachel (Gen. 29:21-30). Because Jacob favors Rachel, Yhwh makes her barren and enables Leah to give birth to four sons in consecutive years (P114-116).
     1758 BC: Leah gives birth to her first child Reuben (Gen. 29:32). Reuben later loses his birthright for having sexual intercourse with Bilhah, who was Leah’s servant and his father Jacob’s concubine (Gen 35:42, 49:3-4; 1 Chr. 5:1) (P117).
     1757 BC: Leah gives birth to Simeon (Gen. 29:33) (P118).
     1756 BC: Leah gives birth to Levi (Gen. 29:34) (P119).
     1755 BC: Leah gives birth to Judah (Gen. 29:35). Jews are named after him (Gen. 35:35) (P120).
     1745 BC: Rachel gives birth to her first child Joseph at the end of Jacob’s fourteen years of service to Laban for the hand of his two daughters (Gen. 30:24).
     Jacob was 91 years old when Joseph was born. Consequently, he was 77 years old when he first started working for Laban. This is because Jacob was 130 years old when he first met Pharaoh and that was after the 7 years of plenty and first 2 years of famine foretold by Joseph (Gen. 45:6, 47:9). At that time Joseph was aged 39 since he was 30 when he was first summoned by Pharaoh (Gen. 41:32, 46) (P121).
     1739 BCJacob worked 14 years for his wives and an additional 6 for flocks (Gen. 30:22, 25, 31; 31:41). He leaves Mesopotamia with his wives, children, and flocks without telling Laban after serving him for 20 years. He crosses the Euphrates in late spring when Laban is having his sheep sheared ((Ge 31:1, 3, 19, 21, 38, 41) (P123).
     Jacob wrestles with an angel and his named is changed to Israel (Gen. 32:1-32, Hos. 12:3-4) (P125).
     After a surprisingly peaceful meeting with his brother Esau, Jacob and his family settle in Shechem. There he buys some land upon which to pitch his tents and keep his sheep (cf. Jud. 9:7). He also erects an altar to Yhwh (Gen. 33:1-20). He does so at the same place that Abraham had set up at altar to Yhwh years before (Gen. 12:6-7). Samaritans later find Jacob’s well there—at the foot of Mount Gerizim. A Samaritan women would later talk with Jesus about her ancestors worshiping Yhwh on that mountain (John 4:5, 6, 12, 20) (126).
     1728 BC: The sons of Jacob sell their 17-year-old brother Joseph into slavery (Gen. 37:2, 3, 6) (P128).
     1717 BC: In prison, Joseph correctly interprets the dreams of two court officials who briefly join him there (Gen. 40:1-41:1) (P129).
     1716 BCIsaac dies aged 180 (Gen. 35:28-29) (P130).
     1715 BC: Aged 30, Joseph is called from prison and correctly interprets Pharaoh’s dreams. Pharaoh makes him governor and gives him a wife from On (or Heliopolis) (Gen. 41:1-46) (P131).
     During the seven years of plenty, Joseph’s wife Asenath gives birth to their two sons Manasseh and Ephraim (Gen. 41:47, 51, 53) (P132).
     1708 BC: The seven years of famine begin in Egypt and surrounding lands (Gen. 41:54, 57) (P133).
     1707 BC: Joseph’s ten brothers come to buy grain from him. To ensure that they return with his full brother Benjamin, he jails Simeon—the brother who sold him into slavery (Gen. 42:1-38) (P134).
     1706 BC: Joseph’s brothers return with Benjamin and he releases Simeon (Gen. 44). Eventually he reveals his true identity to his brothers (Gen. 45). They return home, fetch father and families, and move to Egypt. This is during the third year of the famine and Jacob is 130 years old (Gen 45:6; 46:1, 27; 47:9; Deut. 26:5) (P138).
     Pharaoh settles them in Goshen in the Nile Delta (Gen. 47:1-12) (P139).
     1701 BC: The seven years of famine end (P143).
     1689 BCJacob dies aged 147 years. He spent the last 17 years with family in Egypt (Gen. 49:1-33, 47:25). Before his death, he adopted Joseph’s sons as his own but gave precedence to the younger Ephraim over his older brother (Gen. 48:1-22, Heb. 11:12). Joseph takes the body of Jacob and buries it in the cave at Machpelah near Hebron as he wished (Gen. 50:15-21).
     1635 BCJoseph dies in Egypt aged 110 (Gen. 50:22-26, Heb. 11:22). Apparently, Joseph had ruled Egypt for 80 years under a number of pharaohs. The death of Joseph concludes the book of Genesis. In all, 2369 years elapsed between the creation of the world (4004 BC) and the death of Joseph (P149).
     Job apparently lived during the time of Joseph (P149).
     1619 BC: Levi dies in Egypt aged 137 (Ex. 6:16). Levi had a son named Kohath born in Canaan and daughter named Jochebed born in Egypt. Kohath had a son named Amram who later married his aunt Jochebed. Amram and Jochebed had three children: Moses, Aaron, and Miriam (P151).
     1577 BC: Following Manetho, Ussher believed that Ramses began his 66-year reign at this time and that he was the Pharaoh who did not know Joseph (Exodus 1:8). Fearing their growing numbers and vitality, Ramses subjects the Israelites to forced labor and uses them to build cities he names after himself (Ex. 1:8, 14; Acts 7:18-19) (P159).
     1574 BC: Aaron is born three years before Moses and 83 years before Yahweh liberates the Israelites (Ex. 7:7) (P160).
     1573 BC: Pharaoh orders Israelite midwives to murder all newborn Israelite males (Ex. 1:15-22; Acts 7:19-20) (P161).
     1571 BCMoses is born 41 years after the death of Levi. He was 80 when he first told Pharaoh to let the Israelites go (Ex. 7:7). He died 40 years later (Dt. 3:1-2, 34:7) (P162).
     The parents of Moses do not murder him but hide him for three months (Ex. 2:2, Acts 7:20, Heb. 11:23) (P163).
     He is then discovered by Pharaoh’s daughter, nursed, as it turns out, by his own mother, and then adopted, raised, and educated by Pharaoh’s daughter (Ex. 2:5, 10; Acts 7:21-22) (P164).
     1556 BC: Ussher notes that Eusebius, in his Chronicles, identifies this date as the founding of Athens. Eusebius goes on to relate stories of people and events which followed, including Jupiter’s abduction of Europa, the birth of Apollo, the founding of Thebes by Cadmus, and others concerning ancient heroes such as Minos, Perseus, and Hercules (P165).
     1531 BCMoses, aged 40, flees Egypt for Midian (Ex. 2:11-12, 3:1, 18:1-2; Num. 10:29; Acts 23:30; Jude 4:11) (P168).
     1530 BC: Caleb is born. He was later sent by Moses to spy and report on the land of Canaan (Josh. 14:7, 10) (P169).
     1491 BCYahweh speaks to Moses from a burning bush and sends him back to Egypt  (Ex. 3-4:1, 18; Acts 7:30, 35) (P172). Moses is 80 years old and his brother Aaron is 83 (P176). Two magicians of Pharaoh who opposes Moses were later identified as Jannes and Jambres (2 Tim. 3:8) (176).
     The plagues:
     1. 18th day, 6th month (considered the 12th month after the Exodus [Ex. 12:2]): water to blood.
     2. 25th day: frogs (Ex. 7:25). This ends the next day.
     3. 27th day: flies and lice (P180).
     4. 29th day: pests. This ends the next day (P181).
     5. 2nd day, 7th month (shortly to become the 2nd day of the 1st month): plague on cattle.
     6. 3rd day: boils (P182).
     7. 5th day: hail (P184).
     8. 8th day: locusts. This ends the next day (P185).
     Aviv, traditionally the 7th month, became the 1st month at this time (Ex. 12:2, 13:4). The 1st day of this new 1st month becomes the cornerstone for determining the date of important events according to the Jewish calendar (Ex. 40:17, Numbers 9:1-2) (P186).
     On the 10th day—Thursday, April 30 (Julian calendar)—comes the first declaration of the celebration of Passover. The Passover lamb is chosen and sacrificed 4 days later (Ex. 13:3, 6) (P187).
     9. 11th (?) day: darkness. It lasts for 3 days (Ex. 10:22-23) (P188).
     On the 14th day (Monday, May 4), Moses speaks to Pharaoh for the last time, warning him of the final devastating plague (Ex. 10:24-29; 11:1, 4-8). The Passover is celebrated that evening (Ex. 12:11-12).
     10. 15th day, 1st month (midnight, Tuesday, May 5): death of the firstborn throughout Egypt (Ex. 12:33-36) (P190).
     1491 BC, Tuesday, May 5 (1st month, 15th day): Following the death of all the firstborn of Egpyt (the 10th and final plague), all Egyptians, even Pharaoh himself, urge the Israelites to leave Egypt (Ex. 12:33-36). They do so exactly 430 years after Abraham left Haran. The Israelites number 600,000 men plus women and children (Ex. 12:29-31, 37, 41, 51; Num. 33:3).
     The liberated Israelites initially meet at Ramses where they first lived in the days of Joseph (Gen. 47:11).
     At Succoth, Moses tells them to annually observe the Passover and to dedicate their firstborn to Yahweh (Ex. 13:1-22).
     At Etham, on the edge of the wilderness, Yahweh starts to lead his people personally with a cloud by day and pillar of fire by night (Ex. 13:21-22).
     Yahweh tells Moses to have the people camp at Pi-hahiroth, in front of Baal-zephon, which is between Migdol and the Red Sea (Ex. 14:2). Pharaoh and his army catch up with them there (Ex. 14:9). Yahweh splits the waters of the Red Sea and allows Moses to safely lead Israel to the eastern shore. In fatal contrast, Yahweh collapses the Red Sea on the pursuing Egyptian army and drowns it (Ex. 14:26-30). “This happened on the 21st day of the first month on the last day of the feast of unleavened bread” (Paragraph [P]190.4).
     Israel marches three days through the wilderness but finds no water (Tuesday the 22nd to Thursday the 24th) (Ex. 15:22, Num. 33:8).
     At Marah (“Bitterness”), Israel starts to murmur against Yahweh and Moses and until Yahweh shows Moses a tree which he tosses into the water there to make it drinkable (Ex. 15:23, 26).
     Israel camps at Elim, by the Red Sea, where it finds an oasis with 12 fountains of water and 70 date palms (Ex. 15:27, Num. 33:9-10) (P190).
     1491 BC, 2nd month, 15th day (Thursday, June 4): Wilderness of Sin. The Israelites again begin to murmur against Yahweh and Moses. Yahweh provides them with quails and begins to feed them manna (Ex. 16). They subsequently camp at Dophkah (P9) and Alush (P10).
     At Rephidim (also called Massa and Meribah), the Israelites murmur because of thirst. Moses strikes a rock and out bursts the needed water (Ex. 17:1, 7). This rock then continues with them through the wilderness (Deut. 8:15; Ps 78:16, 20; 105:41; 1Co 10:4).
     Amalekites attack Israel from behind and begin killing stragglers. Moses sends his servant Joshua (Ex. 33:11) as leader of men to repel the attack. Originally named Hoshea, Moses had changed his name to Joshua (Num. 13:16) (Acts 7:45, Heb. 4:8).
     Joshua leads the battle against the Amalekites while Moses prays atop a nearby hill. The Israelites mark the site of their victory with an altar (Ex. 17:8-16, Deut. 25:17-19) (P191).
     1491 BC, 3rd day, 3rd month (Monday, June 22): Israelites arrive at Mount Sinai (P192).
     Yahweh gives Moses his law for his people (Ex. 20:1-26, Deut. 5:1-33) while at the same time maintaining the gracious promises he previously made to Abraham in 1921 BC (Gal. 3:17) (P194).
     Moses reads the book of the covenant to the people and ratifies it at the foot of Mount Sinai (Ex. 24:3-8, Heb. 9:19-20) (P195).
     1491 BC, 14th day, 4th month: Moses discovers the Israelites partying around a golden calf and smashes the Ten Commandments written in stone by the finger of Yahweh at the base of Mount Sinai (P198).
     1491 BC, 6th month: Moses returns with a second set of Ten Commandments written in stone by Yahweh. He asks the Israelites for a voluntary offering to use in building a tabernacle for Yahweh (Ex. 34:1-35:35) (P205).
     A census is taken. Men aged 20 and older number 603,550. Each donates half a shekel as required (Ex. 30:12-13). The sum is 100 talents 1775 shekels of silver (Ex. 38:25-26). One talent, then, consists of 3000 shekels (Ezek. 45:12). The people also freely donate 29 talents 730 shekels of gold and 70 talents 2400 shekels of bronze (Ex. 38:24, 29). Donations of other goods reached the point that Moses commands Israel to stop giving (Ex. 36:5-7) (P206). Imagine!
     By the end of the sixth month at Sinai, everything is prepared for right worship of Yahweh by priests in the Tent of Meeting (Ex. 36:1-39, 43) (P208).
     1490 BC: 1st day, 1st month, 2nd year (Wednesday, April 21): Yahweh fills the Tent of Meeting with his presence (Ex. 40:2, 17, 34). Israel celebrates the Passover beginning on the evening of the 14th day (Tuesday, May 4) (P211).
P229 p 45
     1490 BC, 20th day, 2nd month (Wednesday, June 9), 2nd year after leaving Egypt: The Israelites leave Mount Sinai (Num. 10:11-12, Dt. 1:6-7) (P233).
     4th month: sometime during this month Yahweh strikes Miriam, older sister of Moses, with leprosy for speaking against the leadership of Moses. Yahweh cleanses of her leprosy a week later (Nm. 12:1-15, Dt. 24:9) (P236.14-P237).
     5th month: Yahweh commands Moses to send 12 spies, one man from each tribe (Num. 13:1-2, 21-22, Dt. 1:23) into the Promised Land. Included are 40-year-old Caleb of Judah (Jos. 14:7) and Joshua of Ephraim (P239).
     7th month: The spies return in this month before the Feast of Tabernacles. Ten of the 12 spies deliver a discouraging report. Caleb and Joshua try but fail encourage the people (Num. 13:28-33, 32:9). Instead of leading them into the Promised Land, Yahweh sends his people back into the wilderness for 40 years (Num. 14:26-35).
     1489 BC: Korah, Dathan, and Abiram rebel against Moses. Yahweh causes an earthquake and they, with their families, disappear into the earth (Num 16).
     1455 BC: Cadmus and Phenix of Thebes travel north and found Tyre and Sidon (P261).
     1452 BC, 10th day, 1st month: Miriam dies (Num. 21:1). She was 130 years old (Ex. 2:4, 7). Aaron dies 4 months later; Moses, 11 months after her.
     At Meribah (“Strife”), the people complain about a lack of water, as their parents had 37 years earlier (Ex. 17:7), and Moses rashly strikes a rock twice. It flows with the desired water, but Yahweh now forbids Aaron and even Moses to enter the Promised Land (Num. 20:23-24, 27:14; Ps. 106:32-33) (P265-266).
     5th month: Aaron dies. The Israelites mourn for him the whole month (Num. 20:29) (P268).
     6th month: The bronze serpent (Num. 21:5-9, 33:41; Jos. 3:14; 1 Cor. 10:9) (P270.35).
     Victory against Sihon, Amorite king of Heshbon (Dt. 2:24-36, Num. 21:21-31, Jdg. 1:19-22) (P276).
     Victory against Og, king of Bashan (Num. 21:33-35, Dt. 3:1-11, Amos 2:9) (P278).
     Balak, king of Moab, summons Balaam to curse Israel (Num. 21:1-6, Dt. 33:4, Josh. 24:9) (P281).
     1451 BC: Moses gives the land of Sihon and Og to the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh (Nu. 32:1-42; Dt. 3:12-20, 29:8; Jos. 13:8-12, 22:4) (P290).
     5th day, 11th month (Saturday, February 20): In the 40th year since Israel left Egypt, Moses speaks to the people (Dt. 1:1-27:26) (P292).
     12th month (Adar), 1st day: Moses climbs Mount Nebo, sees the Promised Land, then dies (Num. 27:12-13; Dt. 3:23-29, 31;2-4, 7; 32:49-50, 34:1-5) (P297).
     The Israelites mourned for Moses the rest of the month (Dt. 34:8) (P300). So ends the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, covering 2552 years of history from the creation of the world to the eve of the entry of Yahweh’s people into the land he promised their ancestors to give them. Joshua will lead them into it this 41st year after the Exodus from Egypt (P301).
     1451 BC, first month (P302): Joshua sends two spies to Jericho. Rahab the prostitute protects them (Josh. 2) (P303).
     1451 BC, first month, tenth day (Friday, April 30): the Israelites cross the Jordan River and enter the Promised Land (P307). Jericho falls (Josh. 6) (P312).
     1451 BC, autumn: Israel stops eating manna and starts farming the land. This year thus marks the first from which future sabbatical and jubilee years will be reckoned (Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:2-7; Dt. 15:1-9, 31:10) (P321).
     1446 BC: Joshua leads Israel against Canaanites for six years (Josh. 11:1-18) (P322).
     1445 BC: “The first Sabbatical year they kept was the seventh year from the first year when they began tilling the ground in Canaan. Joshua, a type of Jesus, had brought them into this place of rest, which was a type of that Sabbath and rest which the true Jesus was to give to God's people (Heb. 4:9). From this time is reckoned the years of Jubilee, which was every fifty years. (Lev. 25:8-13)” (P333).
     The Tent of Meeting is set up in Shiloh and there the Ark of the Covenant remains for 328 years (Josh. 18:1) (P335).
     About 450 years had passed from Yahweh’s choice of Isaac in Canaan to Israel’s rest (Josh. 21:43-44) in the Promised Land (Acts 13:17, 19, 20) (P337).
     1443 BC: Joshua dies aged 110 as Joseph had (Gen. 50:26; Josh 23:1, 24:29-30) (P340).
     1413 BC marks the beginning of the calamitous period of the Judges (Jud. 17:1-21:25). First, Cushan, king of Mesopotamia, seizes control of Israel for 8 years (Jud. 2:7, 3:6-8) (P341).
     1405 BC: Yahweh raises up Othniel, son-in-law of Joshua (Josh. 15:17, Jud. 1:31), as Israel’s first judge. He liberates Israel from Cushan’s control and the land then rests for 40 years ((Jud. 3:9-11) (P342).
     1343 [1364?] BC: After Othniel and his generation die, Israel again abandons Yahweh. Yahweh delivers Israel into the hands of its enemies a second time. This time Eglon, king of Moab, dominates it for 18 years (Jud. 3:12-14) (P345).
     1325 [1346?] BC: Yahweh raises up Ehud (second judge), of the tribe of Benjamite, who rescues Israel. There is again peace for 40 years (Jud. 3:15, 30) (P346).
     1305 BC: After Ehud dies, Jabin of Hazar dominates Israel for 20 years (3rd oppression) (Jud. 4:1-3) (P349).
     1285 BC: While Deborah is judge of Israel, Barak leads Israel to victory against the army of Jabin commanded by Sisera. The land rests for 40 years (Jud. 4-5) (P351).
     1252 [1245] BC: Israel sins and is dominated by the Midianites for 7 years (4th oppression) (Jud. 6:1) (P354).
     1245 BC: Gideon rescues Israel and the land has peace for 40 years (Jud. 6-8) (P356).
     1236 BC: Abimelech, son of Gideon, covets kingship and murders the other 70 sons of his father (Jud. 9:15, 18, 24, 56) (P357).
     1235 BC: Abimelech’s rule is condemned by Jotham, youngest son of Gideon, who somehow escaped the slaughter (Jud. 9) (P358).
     1233 BC: Abimelech is killed (Jud. 9:50-54, 2 Sam. 11:21). Tola of Issachar then judges Israel for 23 years (Jud. 10:1-2) (P360).
     1214 BC: Eli, priest at Shiloh, is born. He dies at the age of 98 in 1116 (1 Sam. 4:15).
     1210 BC: Tola dies and Jair of Gilead judges Israel east of the Jordan River for 22 years (Jud. 10:1-3).
     1206 BC: The Philistines and Ammonites oppress Israel for 18 years (5th oppression).
     [1198] BC: The Ammonites defeat the tribes of Israel beyond the Jordan. They then cross the Jordan and attack Ephraim, Benjamin, and Judah after they have already been weakened by the Philistines (Jud. 10:8) (P367).
     1188 BC: Jephthah leads Israel against the Ammonites and defeats them. To honor a rash vow he made to Yahweh, Jephthah offers his daughter to Yahweh as a burnt offering. Ephraim later picks a fight with Jephthah and ends up losing 42,000 of its own men. Jephthah judges Israel for six years (Jud. 11:1-12:7) (P371).
     1184 BC: The fall of Troy (P372).
     1181 BC: Ibzan of Bethlehem judges Israel for seven years (Jud. 12:7-9) (P373).
     1175 BC: Elon of Zebulun judges Israel for ten years (Jud. 12:10-11) (P374).
     1165 BC: Abdon of Ephraim judges Israel for eight years (Jud. 12:12-14) (P377).
     1157 BC, the third month (Sivan): After the death of Abdon (Jud. 12:15), Eli, the high priest, became a judge in Israel for 40 years (1 Sam. 4:18). When Israel again abandoned Yahweh, he abandoned Israel to the Philistines (Jud. 13:1) (6th oppression). It ended seven months after the death of Eli, with the return of the Ark of the Covenant to Israel (P378).
     1156 BC: An angel appears to the wife of Manoah and tells her that, though she has been barren, she will bear a son who will begin to deliver Israel from Philistine control (Jud. 13:5) (P378).
     1155 BC: Samson is born (Jud. 13:24-25). He torments the Philistines for 20 years (Jud. 15:20) (P380).
     1137 BC: Samson also becomes a judge of Israel aged 22 (Jud. 14:4). His Philistine bride betrays him and he kills 30 men of Ashkelon in response (P382).
     1136 BC: Samson avenges himself when his wife is given to another man in marriage (Jud. 15:1-20).
     1117 BC: Samson dies after being a judge in Israel for 20 years (Jud. 16:30-31) (P384).
     1116 BC: Philistines capture the Ark of the Covenant and kill Eli’s two sons. He dies when he receives the news (1 Sam. 4:1-22) (P386).
     1096 BC: 20 years after the Philistines return the Ark to Israel, Yahweh saves Israel from Philistine oppression under the leadership of Samuel (1 Sam. 7:10-14) (P390).
     1095 BC: Saul becomes the first king of Israel and rules for 40 years. It had been 21 years since the death of Eli (1 Sam. 7:2) (P391).
     1085 BC: David is born in Bethlehem (1 Sam. 17:12). 30 years later he becomes king (1 Sam. 16:1, 2 Sam. 5:4) (P394).
     1063 BC: Samuel anoints David as king 40 years before David’s own son Absalom rebels against him (1 Sam. 16:1, 2 Sam. 15:7) (P395).
     1055 BC: Saul dies (1 Sam. 31:1-13, 1 Chr. 10:1-14) (P405). David’s men anoint him king in Hebron. He reigns over Judah there for 7 years and 6 months (2 Sam. 2:1-4, 11; 5:4-5) (P408).
     1048 BC: In Hebron, David is anointed king by all the tribes of Israel (2 Sam. 5:1-3, 1 Chr. 11:1-3, 12:23-40) (P417). David takes Jerusalem and from there rules all Israel for 33 years (2 Sam. 5:5-9, 1 Chr. 11:4-7) (P418).
     1045 BC: David has the Ark of the Covenant brought to Zion (2 Sam. 6:12-14) (Ps422-425).
     1035 BC: David commits adultery with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite (2 Sam. 11:1, 1 Chr. 20:1) (P433).
     1034 BC: Bathsheba, now David’s wife, gives birth to Solomon (P435).
     1032-1027 BC: Ammon, son of David, rapes his half-sister Tamar (2 Sam. 13:1-14). Absalom, her brother, murders Ammon in response (1030 BC) (2 Sam. 13:28-29) (P437). Absalom flees to Geshur in Syria where he stays for 3 years (2 Sam. 13:37-38, 15:8) (P438). He then returns to Jerusalem but is not permitted to visit his father the king (1027 BC) (2 Sam. 14:1-24) (P439).
     1023 BC: Absalom rebels against his father David, forcing David and those close and remaining loyal to him to flee Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:7-18) (P442). He is soon killed in battle by David’s army commander Joab (2 Sam. 18:9-14) (P445).
     1015 BC: David dies and Solomon reigns alone as king of Israel after reigning during the last 6 months of his father’s life (1 Kgs. 2:1-10) (P459).
     1015 BCDavid dies and Solomon reigns alone as king of Israel after reigning during the last 6 months of his father’s life (1 Kgs. 2:1-10) (P459).
     1012 BCSolomon starts construction of the Temple in the 480th year after the Exodus (1 Kgs. 6:1, 37; 2 Chr. 3:2) (P465).
     1005 BCConstruction of the Temple concludes 7 years 6 months after it began (1 Kgs. 6:38). Its dedication takes place the following year which is a Year of Jubilee (P467).
     1004 BC: the world begins its 4th millennium during the 9th Jubilee celebrated by Israel in the Promised Land. The Ark is moved from Zion into the Temple’s Holy of Holies. The Tent of Meeting and the artifacts used in it are moved from Gibeon into Temple storerooms (1 Kgs. 8:1-2, 65-66; 2 Chr. 5:3-5, 6:1, 8:1-11) (P468).
     992 BC: In the 13th year of the Temple, Solomon completes construction of his house (1 Kgs. 7:1, 9:10; 2 Chr. 8:1) (P471).
     975 BCSolomon writes the Book of Ecclesiastes. He dies after ruling Israel for 40 years (1 Kgs. 11:42, 2 Chr. 9:30) (P475).
     Solomon’s son Rehoboam becomes king of all Israel but immediately loses control of the 10 northern tribes. Only Benjamin and Judah remain loyal to him.
     The 10 tribes, which remained known as the kingdom of Israel, chose Jeroboam, himself chosen by Yahweh, as their king (1 Kgs. 12) (P476). Rehoboam ruled the kingdom of Judah for 17 years while Jeroboam ruled 22 years (1 Kgs. 14:20-21, 2 Chr. 12:1-2 (P477).
     8th month, 15th day (Monday, December 16): Jeroboam commands Israel to celebrate the new holiday of his creation (1 Kgs. 12:32-33). Yahweh sends an unnamed prophet to rebuke him (1 Kgs. 13:1-34, 2 Kgs. 23:15-20). From that day, Israel persisted in evil for 390 years (Ezk. 4:5) (P480).
     971 BC: Shishak, king of Egypt, invades Judah and only leaves Jerusalem alone after Rehoboam gives him all the fabulous treasure in his house and the Temple accumulated by Solomon (1 Kgs. 14:26-27, 2 Chr. 12:2-12) (P485).
     958 BCRehoboam dies and his son Abijah becomes king and rules for 3 years (1 Kgs. 15:1-2; 2 Chr. 13:1-2) (P486).
     957 BC: Abijah’s army kills 500,000 men of the Israelite army led by Jeroboam—the highest number killed in all battles mentioned in the Bible (2 Chr. 13:1-22) (P487).
     955 BCAbijah dies and his son Asa succeeds him at the close of Jeroboam’s 20th year of rule. Asa rules for 41 years (1 Kgs. 15:8-10) (P488).
     954 BCJeroboam dies and is succeeded by his son Nadab who rules Israel for 2 years (1 Kgs. 15:25) (P490).
     953 BCNadab is murdered by Baasha who rules in his place as king of Israel for 24 years (1 Kgs. 15:27-29, 33) (P491).
     930 BCBaasha dies and is succeeded by his son Elah (P499).
     929 BCElah and his family are murdered by Zimri who rules for 7 days. Omri, commander of the army, leads it against Zimri who commits suicide (1 Kgs. 16:15-18). In a subsequent struggle for power against, Omri prevails and becomes king of Israel (1 Kgs. 16:8, 20-21) (P501).
     924 BC: Omri builds Samaria as the new capital of the kingdom of Israel (1 Kgs. 16:23-24) (P505).
     918 BCOmri dies and is succeeded by his son Ahab who rules for 22 years (1 Kgs. 16:28-29) (P506).
     914 BCAsa dies and his son Jehoshaphat becomes king and rules for 25 years (1 Kgs. 22:41-42; 2 Chr. 20:31) (P508).
     907 BCAthaliahdaughter of Ahab, marries Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 18:1). She gives birth to Ahaziah who succeeds his father as king when he is 22 (2 Kgs. 8:18-27, 2 Chr. 21:26, 22:2) (P510).
     899 BCJezebel, queen of Israel, has Naboth murdered so she can give his vineyard to her husband Ahab (1 Kgs. 21) (P514).
     898 BC: Jehoshaphat makes Jehoram, his son, viceroy (P515). Ahab likewise makes his son Ahaziah viceroy (1 Kgs. 22:51) (P516).
     897 BCAhab dies in battle against Ramoth-gilead and his son Ahaziah becomes king. Jehoshaphat (king of Judah), who was with him, barely escapes (1 Kgs. 22, 2 Chr. 18) (P518).
     896 BCAhaziah dies and his brother Jehoram (Joram) becomes king of Israel and rules for 12 years (2 Kgs. 3:1) (P522).
     That same year, Elijah is taken to Heaven (2 Kgs. 2) (P523).
     892 BC: Jehoshaphat makes his son Jehoram co-ruler in the 5th year of Joram king of Israel. He rules for 8 years (2 Kgs. 8:16-17, 2 Chr. 21:2-5, 20) (P525).
     889 BC: Good Jehoshaphat dies (2 Chr. 21: 5). His wicked son Jehoram rules alone for 4 years (2 Chr. 21) (P526).
     885 BCJehoram, king of Judah, dies and is succeeded by his sole surviving son Jehoahaz (also known as Ahaziah and Azariah) in the 12th year of Joram son of Ahab (2 Chr. 25:19-20). He rules for 1 year (P531).
     884 BCJehu kills Joram and Jezebel and seizes control of Israel (2 Kgs. 9) (P533). He also murders Ahaziah of Judah (2 Kgs. 9:2; 2 Chr. 22:1-9) (P534). In response, his mother Athaliah, daughter of Ahab, kills the remaining male members of the royal family in Judah and seizes control of the kingdom. Ahaziah’s sister rescued Joash, his infant son, from Athaliah and hid him for six years in the Temple (2 Kgs. 11:1-3, 2 Chr. 22:10-12) (P535).
     878 BC: Jehoiada, the high priest, publicly anoints Joash, aged 7, as king of Judah and has Athaliah murdered (2 Kgs. 11:4, 21; 2 Chr. 23:4, 21). Joash rules for 40 years (2 Kgs. 12:1, 2 Chr. 24:1) (P536).
     856 BCJehu dies and Jehoahaz his son becomes king of Israel and rules for 17 years (2 Kgs. 13:1) (P541).
     839 BCJoash is murdered at the beginning of his 40th year of rule in retaliation for his ordering the murder of Zechariah, priest and son of Jehoiada, who had spoken against the renewed idolatry of Judah (2 Kgs. 12:17-21, 2 Chr. 24:1, 23-27). He was succeeded by Amaziah as king of Judah (2 Kgs. 14:1-2) (P544).
     Jehoahaz dies and his son Joash becomes king of Israel (2 Kgs. 13:14-20) (P545).
     826 BC: Amaziah, king of Judah, forces a battle upon Joash, king of Israel, who in response crushes his army and takes Amaziah prisoner (2 Kgs. 14:8-14, 2 Chr. 25:17-24) (P548-9).
     825 BCJoash, king of Israeldies and his son Jeroboam 2nd rules (1 Kgs. 14:23) (P550).
     810 BCAmaziah murdered (2 Kgs. 14:19-20, 2 Chr. 25:27-28) and his son Uzziah (Azariah) rules (2 Kgs. 15:1-2, 2 Chr. 26:2-16) (P552).
     808 BC: the 13th Jubilee. At this time in Judah live the prophets Isaiah (Isa. 1:1) and Joel. Joel predicted a drought (Joel 1:20) which Amos later affirmed took place (Amos 4:1-13). Amos was a shepherd in Tekoa in Judah until sent by Yahweh as a prophet to Israel two years before a major earthquake (Amos 1:1, Zech. 11:5) (P553).
     Jonah also prophesied in Israel at this time. He was from Gathhepher in Zebulun (John 7:52) in Galilee of the Gentiles (Isa. 9:1). He prophesied the deliverance of Israel through Jeroboam 2nd (2 Kings 14:25-26). Later Yahweh sent him to Nineveh where his message led to their repentance (Jon. 3, Matt. 12:41) (P555).
     Even Hosea served as a prophet of Yahweh during this time. While Israel enjoyed apparent success under the rule of Jeroboam 2nd, Yahweh had Hosea proclaim the end rushing toward it which Hosea lived to see (Hos. 1:1, 2 Kgs. 18:10) (P556).
     784 BC: With the death of Jeroboam 2nd begins the first period of transition in which Israel was forced to survive without a king. Its vitality declined fatally during this time (see Amos 7:1-8:14) (P563).
     776 BC: The first Olympics took place (P567).
     773 BCZechariah, son of Jeroboam, great grandson and last of the Jehu dynasty (as prophesied), began to rule but did so for only 6 months (2 Kgs. 15: 8, 12, 10, 30) (P568).
     Zachariah is murdered by Shallum. The agonies prophesied by Amos occur (Amos 7:1-17, 9:1-15) (569).
     Shallum is murdered by Menahem one month later (2 Kgs. 15:14-16) (P570-1).
     771 BCPul, king of Assyria, invades Israel. Pul may have been the king who repented in response to the word of Yahweh spoken by Jonah. Perhaps, in this instance, Yahweh used a king who worshiped Olympian gods to punish his people who do but should know better (P575). Menahem paid him off (2 Kgs. 15:19-20, Hos. 5:13).
     761 BCMenahem died and his son Pekahiah ruled Israel for 2 years (2 Kgs. 15:22) (P580).
     759 BCPekah murdered Pekahiah and ruled in his place (2 Kgs. 15:25-27) (P582).
     Isaiah’s prophetic ministry and vision of Yahweh on his throne occurred at this time—the year of the 14th Jubilee (Isa. 6:1-13, John 12:40-41) (P583).
     Uzziah died and his son Jotham ruled in his place (2 Kgs. 15:7, 32-33; 2 Chr. 26:23, 27:1, 8) (P584).
     Hosea continues and is joined by Micah (Mic. 1:1). During the rule of Ahaz, Nahum prophesies the destruction of Assyria 115 years before it occurs (P585).
     753 BC: traditional date of the founding of Rome.
     747 BC: Nineveh fell (P591-2) and Assyria was forced to contract from empire to kingdom. It was ruled by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kgs. 15:29, 16:7, 10; 2 Chr. 28:20) (P596).
     742 BCJotham died and his son Ahaz ruled (2 Kgs. 16:1-2, 2 Chr. 28:1).
     Yahweh incites the kings of Syria and Israel to attack Ahaz (2 Kgs. 15:37). Isaiah speaks to him of the sign of Immanuel (Isa. 7:1-8:22) (P598).
     739 BCPekah is murdered by Hoshea and this starts a second period of transition (2 Kgs. 15:30-38) (P610).
     730 BC: Hoshea restored ordered to Israel after 9 painful years of chaos (2 Kgs. 17:1) (P614).
     726 BCAhaz died and his son Hezekiah ruled (P619).
     721 BC: The Assyrian army under their king Shalmaneser takes Samaria and destroys the northern Kingdom of Israel (P633).
     710 BCYahweh destroyed the Assyrian army under Sennacherib as it prepared to besiege Jerusalem (Isa. 31:8-9, 37:36-38, 38:1-22; 2 Kgs. 19:35-37; 2 Chr. 32:21) (P668).
     698 BCHezekiah died (2 Chr. 32:33) and his son Manasseh ruled for 55 years (2 Kgs. 21:1). He was as wicked as his father was good—devoting himself more thoroughly to the Olympian gods than even the nations whom the Israelites had dispossessed (2 Kgs. 21:2, 11; 2 Chr. 33:2, 9). He also killed many innocent people (2 Kgs. 21:16, 24:4) including the prophet Isaiah (see Heb. 11:37) (P682).
     677 BCManasseh was dragged into exile to Babylon by the Assyrians (2 Chr. 33:11) (P697) where he repented and was returned by Yahweh to Jerusalem (2 Chr. 33:12-13) (P699).
     656 BC: The general Holophernes was beheaded by Judith (Judith 13:8-11) (P711).
     643 BC: Manasseh returned from exile (P716). Manasseh died and his son Amon ruled for 2 years (2 Kgs. 21:19-22; 2 Chr. 33:21-23) (P717).
     641 BC: Amon is murdered by his servants. His son Josiah, aged 8, rules for 31 years (2 Kgs. 22:1, 2 Chr. 34:1) (P719).
     630 BC: Josiah rids Judah and Jerusalem of the objects and practices of Olympianity (2 Chr. 34:3-7) (P736).
     629 BC: Yahweh calls Jeremiah to be a prophet (1:2, 17; 28:3). Zephaniah was already called and prophesying (Zeph. 1:1, Jer. 25:3-5) (P737).
     624 BC: The Book of the Law was found in the Temple. Josiah worked vigorously to restore devotion to Yahweh (Dt. 31:26, 2 Kgs. 33:1-14, 2 Chr. 34:8-28) (P742).
     610 BCJosiah died fighting unnecessarily against Neco, king of Egypt, at Megiddo (2 Kgs. 23:29, 2 Chr. 35:20-22) (P754). Jehoahazyoungest son of Josiah, became king (2 Kgs. 23:30-32, 2 Chr. 36:1) (P759). He is deposed by Neco after ruling for only 3 months. Neco makes Eliakim, his older brother, king and changes his name to Jehoiakim (2 Kgs. 23:31-34, 2 Chr. 36:2-4) (P760).
     Yahweh commanded Jeremiah to preach repentance just outside the Temple during the Feast of Tabernacles when all adult males of Judah were required to be in Jerusalem (Dt. 15:16). He was arrested by eventually freed (Jer. 26:1-2, 19) (P763).
     609 BCHabakkuk prophesied (Hab. 1:5-6) (P766).
     607 BC: Baruch wrote down all the words of Jeremiah (Jer. 36:1-8) (P772).
     Nebuchadnezzar threatened to take Jehoiakim as prisoner to Babylon but changed his mind and let him remain in Jerusalem (2 Chr. 36:6). Many other leaders weren’t so blessed. So marks the beginning of the 70 years of exile prophesied by Jeremiah (Jer. 25:11, 29:10) (P775).
     Going into captivity were the best of Judah’s children and youth—including Daniel and his three friends (Dan. 1:3-7) as prophesied by Isaiah (39:7) (P776).
     606 BC: Jehoiakim burned the scroll of Jeremiah’s words written down by Baruch (Jer. 36:9-25) (P778).
     604 BC: Daniel and his friends started their service to the king of Babylon (Dan. 1:5-20) (P785). Daniel correctly interpreted a dream the king had about a statue made of different metals (Dan. 2:1-49) (P786).
     600 BC: The Babylonian army attacked Judah and took 3,000 prisoners, including Jehoiakim (2 Kgs. 24:2, Jer. 52:28) (P791).
     599 BCJehoiakim died in Jerusalem and his son Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) ruled after him for 3 months (2 Kgs. 24:8-9, 2 Chr. 36:8-9) (P794). Nebuchadnezzar takes him and 10,000 leading inhabitants of Jerusalem to Babylon (2 Kgs. 24:8-16, 2 Chr. 36:10, Jer. 24:1 and 29:1-2, Ezk. 17:12). Included in the number was Mordecai (Esth. 2:5-6) and Ezekiel (Ezk. 1:2-3) (P796). They took with them a letter from Jeremiah (Jer. 29:1-23) (P810).
     Nebuchadnezzar made Mattaniah, son of Josiah and nephew of Jehoiakim, king and renamed him Zechariah (P806).
     596 BC: Hananiah falsely prophesies deliverance, was rebuked by Jeremiah, and died (Jer. 28:1-14) (P813).
     595 BC: Yahweh begins the prophetic ministry of Ezekiel by granting him his first vision (Ezk. 1:1-2, 28; 2:1-3:27) (P821).
     594 BC: Ezekiel 13-19 were written. They mention the honor enjoyed by Daniel at that time (Ezk. 14:14, 20) (P827).
     590 BC, Thursday, January 30: Nebuchadnezzar and the army of Babylon began their siege of Jerusalem (2 Kgs. 25:1, Jer. 39:1, 52:4) (P831).
     588 BC, Wednesday, July 27: Jerusalem fell (2 Kgs. 26:2-4; Jer. 39:2-3, 52:5-7) (P846).
     Sunday, August 27: The Babylonian army burned down the Temple, the king’s palace, and all the other buildings in Jerusalem (Jer. 38:8, 52:13) (P849). Afterward, the Babylonian army carried away the treasures and people of Jerusalem back to Babylon (P850).
     588 BC: The departing Babylonian army puts Gedeliah of Judah in charge of the other marginal people of Judah being left there (2 Kgs. 25:1, 22-23; Jer. 39:10, 42:16) (P851). Baalis, kind of the Ammonites, pays Ishmael, a surviving member of the extended royal family of Judah, to murder Gedeliah. In the seventh month, he does (2 Kgs. 25:25, Jer. 41:1-3) (856).
     587 BCJeremiah and Baruch are taken to Egypt by fearful people of Judah whom Jeremiah had told to remain and live (Jer. 42:1-43:13) (P858).
     Various biblical witnesses speak against Edom for gloating over the destruction of Jerusalem: Obadiah, Jeremiah (49:7), Ezekiel (25:12), and two psalmists (79, 137) (P863).
     584 BC: Nebuchadnezzar lays siege to Tyre (P866).
     574 BCEzekiel has a vision of Jerusalem and Temple restored (Ezk. 40-48) (P873).
     572 BC: Tyre surrenders to Nebuchadnezzar. His soldiers loot it (Ezk. 29:18-19) (P876).
     570 BC: Nebuchadnezzar returns from his western conquests to Babylon and there creates the Hanging Gardens, one of seven wonders of the ancient world, for his dearly beloved wife (P882-3).
     569 BC: Nebuchadnezzar is driven mad by power and spends the next 7 years in the wilderness (Dan. 4:32-33) (P885).
     563 BC: Yahweh restores Nebuchadnezzar to good health and leadership of his empire and Nebuchadnezzar rightly praises Yahweh for his mercy (Dan. 4:34-37) (P889).
     562 BCNebuchadnezzar dies (P890).
     561 BCSolon, sage of Athens, visits Croesus of Sardis, king of Lydia. Croesus admired Aesop for his fables and sent for the Phrygian (P895). After visiting Croesus, Aesop traveled to Delphi where he was unjustly sentenced to death and executed. His judicial murder was later avenged as the Oracle of Delphi had predicted (P896).
     559 BC: Solon dies suddenly in Cyprus aged 80 (P903).
     555 BCDaniel has a vision of four beasts signifying four empires—all giving way at last to the rule of the Son of Man (Dan. 7) (P913).
     547 BCThales of Miletus dies aged 64. Before his death, he encourages his student Pythagoras to further his learning in Egypt. Egyptian priests teach him Egyptian religion and history as well as astronomy and geometry (P9220.
     546 BC: Cyrus conquers the Ionian municipal states along the Aegean coast of Anatolia (P926).
     538 BCCyrus conquers Babylon and finishes absorbing its empire into his own (P936).
     Belshazzar, king of Babylon, was feasting when the army of Cyrus entered the city. Yahweh wrote a message on the wall for the king. Daniel interpreted it (Dan. 5) (P937). That night Belshazzar was killed by the army of Cyrus and the Babylonian empire came to the end foreseen by the prophets of Yahweh (Isa. 13:1-14:32, 21:1-17, 34:1-17, 46:1-13; Hab. 2:1-20; Jer. 25:1-38, 50:1-51:64) (P938).
     Daniel is cast into a lion’s den due to the intrigues of jealous enemies but is saved by Yahweh (Dan. 6) (P944). Knowing that the 70 years of Israel’s Babylonian Captivity was about to end (Jer. 29:10), Daniel prays to Yahweh on their behalf. Gabriel speaks to him in response and prophesies 70 weeks of years or 490 years between the release of Jewish captives in Babylon until the coming of the Messiah (Dan. 9:12-27) (P946).
     537 BC: Following his father’s death, this year marks the first of the sole rule of Cyrus over the whole Persian empire. Cyrus decrees that Jews living anywhere in his empire may return to Jerusalem. He orders those who do return to rebuild the Temple of Yahweh. He returns to them the vessels taken from the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar (P949).
     536 BC: In response to the decree of Cyrus, 42,360 Jews return to Jerusalem (P951).
     535 BCDaniel has his last vision (Dan. 10:1-12:13) shortly before he dies (P956).
     529 BCCyrus dies (P959).
     525 BC: The Persian army deports Pythagoras with thousands of other Egyptians to Babylon. He continues his habit of learning from the wisest and speaks with sages of the Jewish community as well (P981).
     523 BCArtaxerxes becomes king of Persia (P1000). Samaritan leaders write to persuade him to stop the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem by Jews who had returned from exile in Babylon (Ezra 4:7-16) (P1001). Artaxerxes ordered the work stopped until he looked into the matter. It did (Ezra 4:17-24) (P1002).
     521 BCDarius becomes emperor of Persia (P1006). He then marries Atossa who was the daughter of Cyrus. In the book of Esther, he is referred to as Ahasuerus and his wife as Vashti (P1009).
     520 BCHaggai the prophet scolds the Jews in Jerusalem for failing to rebuild the Temple (Hag. 1:1-15) (P1015).
     In this same year, Yahweh calls Zechariah to preach repentance to his people (Zech. 1:1-6) (P1017).
     519 BCDarius executes Artaxerxes (P1024).
     518 BC: For publicly disrespecting her husband, Vashti is eventually displaced by Esther (Est. 1) (P1027-1029).
     515 BC: The second Temple in Jerusalem is finished (P1032).
     514 BCDarius (Ahasuerus) chooses Esther to be his new queen (Est. 2:16-17). The story of Esther unfolds during the course of this year (P1035).
     502 BC: Ionian cities along the western coast of Anatolia rebel against Darius (P1055). The Athenians support the rebellion by providing 20 ships under an able commander (P1058).
     500 BC: Athenians join the Ionians in attacking, overwhelming, and burning down the Persian provincial capital of Sardis. The Persian army pursues the Athenians and punishes them. Surviving Athenians abandon the Ionians and return home despite ongoing appeals for further assistance (P1060). When Darius hears of Athenian complicity in the burning of Sardis, he orders an assistant to say to him three times at every meal, “‘Sir, remember the Athenians’” (P1061).
     Pre-Socratic philosopher Anaxagoras is born on the Ionian island of Clazomenae on the western coast of Anatolia (P1063).
     497 BC: The Persian navy and army conquer and destroy Miletus, center of the Ionian rebellion (P1073). The following year, the remaining rebellious cities of Ionia suffer the same fate (P1076).
     490 BCBattle of Marathon between a huge Persian army and a relatively small number of men from Platea and Athens under Miltiades. The Greeks achieve a stunning victory (P1093).
     485 BC: Darius dies (P1099) and his son Xerxes succeeds him (P1100).
     484 BC: The historian Herodotus is born in the city of Helicarnassus on the west coast of Anatolia (P1102).
     480 BC: Xerxes marches leads his army and navy to conquer Hellenia. Under his command he has over thousands of ships, tens of thousands of cavalry, and hundreds of thousands of soldiers (P1012-1013).
     Leonidas, king of Sparta, leads 300 Spartans, along with 200 men from Thespia and Thebes, against the Persian army at a chokepoint called Thermopylae. He and his men all die but not before delaying the Persian army for three days, killing 20,000 enemy soldiers, and acting heroically enough to be remembered to this day (P1021).
     When the Persian army reaches Athens, they find the city deserted, loot it, then burn it down (P1123-1124).
     Greek ships commanded by Themistocles defeat the much larger Persian navy at the Battle of Salamis (P1125).
     After witnessing this naval disaster, Xerxes sends the remainder of his fleet to guard his bridge across the Hellespont between Europe and Asia. He then hastens the bulk of his army to cross it before any further disaster befalls him (P1132-1133). Famine and disease ravage the soldiers left behind to complete the conquest of Hellenia (P1136).
     479 BC: The Greek army decisively defeats the Persian army at the Battle of Platea (P1153). News of these Greek victories encourages Ionian cities to renew their rebellion against the Persian empire (P1158).
     473 BC: Xerxes is murdered. His son Artaxerxes becomes emperor (P1176).
     467 BCEzra, priest and scribe, receives permission from Artaxerxes to go to Jerusalem to help the city recover its vitality (P1202). A large number of Jews in Babylon return with Ezra (Ezra 7:6-9, 8:1-14, 30) (P1203). The journey takes about four months (P1204).
     454 BC: Artaxerxes also give Nehemiah permission to go to Jerusalem and help it. So begins the 70 weeks of years spoken by Gabriel to Daniel (Neh. 2:1-6, Dan. 9:24-25) (P1227). That same year he enables the people of Jerusalem to complete the rebuilding of the city’s wall despite internal and external enemies (Neh. 6:1-19) (P1234).
     1st day, 7th month: Ezra reads the Law to all the Jews in and around Jerusalem (Neh. 8:1-12) (P1238).
     442 BC: Nehemiah returns to the emperor’s service (Neh. 5:14, 13:6) (P1262). He soon returned and corrected faults that had so quickly appeared during his absence (Neh. 13) (P1263).
     431 BC: The Peloponnesian War, pitting Athens and Sparta against one another, begins (P1276).
     430 BC: A plague ravages Athens. Hippocrates aids victims (P1279).
     428 BCPericles dies (P1284). Anaxagoras, his teacher, also dies (P1285).
     425 BC: Artaxerxes dies and is succeeded by his son Xerxes (P1290).
     424 BC: Xerxes is murdered by his brother (P1295).
     416 BCMalachi, last of the prophets until John the Baptist, helps Nehemiah call the Jews in Jerusalem back to Yahweh (P1305).
     401 BCXenophon, along with 10,000 Greek mercenary companions, finds himself abandoned in the middle of hostile Persian territory. He later writes of how they worked together to survive a harsh weather and enemies to return home safely (P1451).
     370 BCSpartan power, growing since its defeat of Athens in 404 BC, is broken by Thebes at the Battle of Leuctra (P1591).
     356 BCAlexander, son of Philip, king of Macedonia, is born in Pella (P1632).
     348 BCPlato dies (P1672).
     337 BC: An assembly of leaders from all Greek cities meets in Corinth and makes Philip, king of Macedonia, leader of their combined army to attack Persia (1685).
     336 BCPhilip is murdered. His son Alexander writes a letter to Darius, emperor of Persia, and accuses him of hiring the assassins who did it (P1697).
     335 BC: Another assembly in Corinth confirms Alexander as leader of the combined Greek forces against Persia (P1703).
     Later Athens, Sparta, and Thebes withdraw their support from Alexander and commit themselves to Persia. The Athenians are persuaded to do so by their gifted orator Demosthenes. They do not know that he has been bribed by Darius to speak as he does (P1704). Athens later repents of its rebellion and Alexander forgives them (P1707).
     When Thebes refuses to repent, Alexander attacks it (P1707) and levels it. His army kills 90,000 men and sells another 30,000 into slavery. The only buildings he spares are the houses of priests, his father’s friends, and the poet Pindar (P1711).
     Alexander visits the philosopher Diogenes (P1712).
     334 BC: As Alexander continues preparations in Macedonia to attack Persia, the high priest of Jerusalem appears to him in a dream and encourages him to attack Persia quickly (P1713). Alexander and his forces enter Asia in early spring (P1714).
     Once in Asia, Alexander makes sacrifices to Achilles, his ancestor and inspiration, and the other Greek heroes of the Trojan War (P1719). He also visits Troy (P1720).
     At the Battle of the Granicus River, his first with the Persian army, Alexander almost has his head sliced open before his army achieves its first and decisive victory (P1725).
     333 BC: Alexander cuts the Gordian Knot (P1746).
     332 BC: Alexander enters Jerusalem and is led to the Temple by the high priest where he offers sacrifices to Yahweh as instructed. When asked why, he tells the high priest of the dream he had two years previously (P1814).
     331 BC: Alexander’s army marches through Egypt and takes Memphis without a fight (P1824-5). Alexander sails down the Nile to the Mediterranean and there founds a city which he names Alexandria after himself (P1826).
     Alexander’s army decisively defeats the Persian army under Darius at the Battle of Guagamela (P1878). Darius flees (P1881). Alexander is then recognized as ruler of all Anatolia and Levantia (P1887).
     Alexander and his army then enter Babylon itself uncontested (P1889).
     Alexander and his army occupy Susa (P1899).
     The Macedonians next take Persepolis (P1909).
     Alexander visits the tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae (P1920).
     Darius, wounded by those closest to him, dies just before Alexander catches up to him. He had reigned as Persian emperor a mere six years and died 200 years after the first Persian emperor Cyrus the Great (P1945).
     329 BC: Alexander captures Bessus (P1991), murderer of his master Darius, and later has him executed (P2009).
     328 BC: Alexander comes to believe he is the divine Son of God (Jupiter). He now requires all who wish to speak with him to first prostrate themselves before him. While this was an old Persian custom, Macedonians had always thought of it as lacking in dignity and never practiced it. Being required to do so now sparks deep resentment (P2041).
     Alexander’s army cross the Indus River into India (P2075).
     327 BC: Alexander’s army reaches its easternmost point at Hyphasis in India because his soldiers refuse to continue the string of battles that for them had started eight years before (P2119-2120).
     324 BC: Alexander and his army manage to fight their way back to Babylon (P2316).
     323 BCAlexander dies in Babylon (P2355) after suffering from a fever for over a week (P2356).
     6 BC: The angel Gabriel announces to the priest Zechariah in Jerusalem that his wife Elizabeth will give birth to a son. He is to be named John and he will serve Yahweh in the spirit and power of Elijah (6025).
     5 BC: The angel Gabriel announces to Mary in Nazareth of Galilee that she will conceive a son by the power of the Holy Spirit. She is to name him Jesus (6039).
     Mary hurries to the home of her cousin Elizabeth in the city of Hebron (6040).
     John is born (6043).
     Caesar Augustus orders a census to be taken of the whole Roman world (6049).
     December [25]: Joseph takes Mary his wife to register in Bethlehem. While there, Mary gives birth to Jesus (6057).
     4 BC: January: Wise men from the East pay homage to newborn Jesus in Bethlehem (6060).
     February: Forty days after the birth of Jesus, Mary goes to the Temple in Jerusalem to make the sacrifice required by the Law (6061). Afterward, she and Joseph return with Jesus to their home in Nazareth (6063).
     An angel warns Joseph to take Mary and Jesus and flee to Egypt (6064). Herod, thinking Jesus is still in Bethlehem, sends soldiers there who kill all the children aged two years and younger to make sure they get Jesus (6065).
     November 25: Herod dies (6080).
     3 BC: An angel tells Joseph of Herod’s death and that it is safe to return (6084). He leads his family to Nazareth (6085).
     AD 1: The first Year of the Lord [Jesus] as determined by the monk Dionysius the Humble in 512. He created this new way of numbering years both to honor Jesus and to stop the practice of dating years from the beginning of the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian who persecuted Christians so badly.
     8: Joseph and Mary bring their son Jesus with them when they travel to Jerusalem to observe the Passover. After the festival, Joseph and Mary leave the city assuming their son is with their group. When they realize he isn’t, they search for him. After three days, they find Jesus in the Temple (6185).
     9Ovid is banished from Rome by Caesar Augustus (6187) aged 51 (6188).
     14, August 19: Caesar Augustus dies (6205).
     17: Ovid dies (6218).
     26Pontius Pilate becomes the Roman procurator of Judea (6279).
     October 19: John the Baptist begins preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins (Mark 1:4, New American Standard Version). This was the Day of Atonement and beginning of a Year of Jubilee (6283).
     27John baptizes Jesus (6288).
     30Jesus begins his public ministry (6302).
     Jesus goes to Jerusalem for the Passover for the first time since beginning his public ministry (6303). He drives the money changers and their oxen, sheep, and doves from the Temple (6304). He also speaks to Nicodemus who comes to him at night (6306).
     Herod the tetrarch unjustly throws John the Baptist into prison (6311). When Jesus hears of this, he leaves Judea for Galilee after having preached there for about eight months (6312). On his return, he converts a Samaritan woman (6313).
     31: After his rejection in Nazareth, Jesus moves to Capernaum (6318). He then calls Peter, Andrew, James, and John as his first disciples (6325). Jesus returns to Jerusalem for the second Passover since his public ministry began (6332). After returning to Galilee, Jesus preaches what is called his Sermon on the Mount (6338). He sends his twelve apostles out in pairs (6357).
     32John the Baptist is executed (6362). Jesus returns to Jerusalem for the third Passover during his public ministry (6369). Peter confesses that Jesus is the Christ (6378). Soon Jesus is transfigured before Peter, James, and John (6379).
     33: Jesus brings Lazarus back to life (6428). Jesus enters Jerusalem in triumph (6439). On April 2, he celebrates his fourth Passover and last supper with his disciples (6454). Jesus is arrested in a garden called Gethsemane (6462).
     April 3, 9 am: Jesus is crucified (6474). 3 pm: Jesus dies (6479).
     April 5The resurrection of Jesus Christ (6484).
     May 14: Jesus ascends into Heaven (6505).
     May 24: The Holy Spirit descends on the disciples on Pentecost (6510).
     5 BCSaul, later known as the apostle Paul, is born in Tarsus (Anatolia) perhaps around the same time that Jesus is born in Bethlehem.
     33 AD, May 24: Day of Pentecost, birthday of the Church (6510).
     The death of Stephen—the first martyr. Those stoning him laid their cloaks at the feet of Saul. Saul was a Pharisee from Tarsus in Cilicia. He was in Jerusalem to study theology at the Synagogue of Cilicia and to learn from Gamaliel (6520).
     34: A great persecution of the church in Jerusalem begins. Saul participates enthusiastically in it (6524).
     35Jesus confronts Saul on the road to Damascus and Saul becomes his witness instead of his persecutor (6533). Saul goes to Damascus, leaves for Arabia (6539), then returns (6540).
     37: Saul is forced to flee Damascus by night to avoid being murdered by Jews who oppose him just as he once opposed Christians (6586).
     Saul returns to Jerusalem and speaks with Peter, James, and Barnabas (6587). Because Jews in Jerusalem also planned to murder him, some Christian Jews take Saul to Caesarea and put on a ship to Tarsus (6590).
     38: Peter visits the churches in Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. In Lydda, he heals a man named Aeneas; in Joppa, he brings a woman named Tabitha back to life (6600).
     39Pontius Pilate commits suicide (6609).
     40Peter visits the household of Cornelius, a Gentile, and, after the Holy Spirit descends upon the whole group, baptizes them (6658).
     Greek Christian Jews from Jerusalem preach the Good News of Jesus to Gentiles in Antioch and, in response, some of these become disciples. The church in Jerusalem sends Barnabas to speak with the growing church there (6664).
     43: Barnabas travels to Tarsus to bring Saul to Antioch (6667).
     44: In response to challenges caused by a famine, the church in Antioch have Barnabas and Saul take money to the church in Jerusalem (6673).
     Herod Agrippa, King of Judea, starts to persecute Christian Jews (6674). He has James, son of Zebedee and brother of John, beheaded (6676) and has Peter jailed during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. An angel miraculously secures Peter’s release (6677). When the king is later praised as a god, an angel of the one true god strikes him and he dies (6678).
     45Barnabas and Saul are sent by the church in Antioch on their first missionary tour. They take John Mark with them and sail to Cyprus (home of Barnabas) (6691). Following the conversion of Sergius Paulus, ruler of the island, Saul becomes known as Paul.
     When the missionaries reach Anatolia, John Mark leaves them and returns to Jerusalem (6692). In Lystra, Paul is stoned and left for dead. A little later, he is briefly taken into Heaven where he hears words to wonderful to speak (2 Corinthians 12:2-4) (6703).
     At Derbe, in response to Paul’s preaching, many become Christians, including Lois, her daughter Eunice, and her grandson Timothy (6707).
     Paul and Barnabas return to Antioch (6708).
     51: Christian Jews from Jerusalem go to Antioch and tell Gentile Christians there that they must be circumcised to be saved. Paul and Barnabas oppose them (6752).
     52: The church in Antioch sends Paul and Barnabas to Jerusalem to speak with church leaders there and settle the matter (6753). A council of leaders decide against requiring circumcision. When Paul and Barnabas return to Antioch and report the news, the church rejoices (6757).
     Peter visits the church in Antioch and enjoys full fellowship with Gentile Christians there. When representatives from James, the brother of Jesus, also come for a visit, Peter and other Christian Jewish members of the church stop eating with them. Paul rebukes Peter and the rest for their hypocrisy (6766).
     53: Paul asks Barnabas to return with him to the churches they had previously started. Barnabas refuses to go with him because Paul refuses to take John Mark, the nephew of Barnabas, with them again since he had previously abandoned them. Barnabas and John Mark then go alone to Cyprus while Paul leaves for the churches in Anatolia with Silas on a second missionary tour (6780).
     Paul, Silas, and Timothy cross the Aegean Sea and, in one of history’s most significant moments, take the Gospel to Europe (6783). Western Civilization would never be the same.
     Paul starts Europe’s first church in Philippi in the house of a wealthy woman named Lydia (6786). He then starts a church in Thessalonica (6788).
     54Claudius expels Jews from Rome (6792).
     Paul preaches in Athens and then travels to Corinth (6798).
     From Corinth, Paul writes the First and Second Letters to the Thessalonians (6803).
     56: Paul leaves Corinth (6818) and travels to Jerusalem and then back to Antioch. Soon enough, Paul leaves again on a third missionary tour. Among others, he preaches to the Galatians (6819).
     57: Paul arrives in Ephesus and begins his work there by teaching some disciples about the baptism of the Holy Spirit (6822).
     58: From Ephesus, Paul writes his Letter to the Galatians (6830).
     59: In Ephesus, Paul receives visitors from Corinth, including Apollos who brings him a letter from the church there. In response, Paul writes his First Letter to the Corinthians (6835).
     Paul leaves Ephesus for his own safety after silversmiths profiting from the Temple of Diana accuse Paul of hurting their business and start a riot against him (6837).
     Aquila and Priscilla leave Ephesus and return to Rome (6838).
     60: Paul travels first to Troas then to the churches in Macedonia (6839). When Paul hears from Titus that the Corinthians responded well to his first letter, he writes his Second Letter to the Corinthians and sends Timothy to Corinth with it (6841).
     Paul himself returns to Corinth. While there he writes his Letter to the Romans (6843).
     Paul leaves for Jerusalem with money collected as a gift from the churches in Achaia and Macedonia (6843).
     Paul arrives in Jerusalem and delivers the donation to the church there. He is arrested shortly thereafter (6851). For his own safety, the Romans transfer him to Caesarea within a week (6854).
     61Mark the evangelist, first to preach the Good News in Alexandria, dies there (6864).
     62Paul appeals to Caesar (6868). He is placed aboard a ship and makes it safely as far as Crete (6873). After a violent storm lasting two weeks, all aboard make it safely to land (6874).
     63: The people of Malta treat Paul and his companions generously and send them on their way to Rome after three months (6877). After Paul arrives in Rome, he stays in his own house for two years while awaiting trial (6878).
     Anunas, the high priest, convenes the Sanhedrin to have it condemn James the brother of Jesus and leader of the church in Jerusalem. They do and James is executed (6886).
     64Nero sings of the destruction of Troy as he watches Rome burn (6898). To deflect suspicion that he caused the fire, Nero condemns Christians. They suffer torture and death (6899).
     Epaphroditus arrives in Rome with monetary and spiritual support from the church in Philippi (6905). Paul converts Onesimus, a slave who had run away from his master in Colossae (6906). Timothy, imprisoned with Paul, is freed (6907). Paul sends Epaphroditus back with his Letter to the Philippians (6908). Paul writes his Letter to Philemon, master of Onesimus, and Letter to the Colossians and sends both with Onesimus to deliver (6909). Paul sends his Letter to the Ephesians with Tychicus who had traveled with him in and around that city (6910). Paul writes his Letter to the Hebrews (6913).
     65: Construction of the Temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem is finished (6914).
     Paul is released but not yet acquitted. He travels to the Roman province of Asia and stays with Philemon in Colossae (6915). Paul then preaches in Crete and leaves Titus there to complete the organization of churches (Titus 1:5) (6918). Paul travels to Ephesus and leaves Timothy there to lead the church as he returns to Philippi (6923). From Philippi, Paul writes his First Letter to Timothy (6924) and his Letter to Titus (6925).
     66: At the beginning of spring, Paul visits Timothy and the church in Ephesus. He then travels to Rome, presents his case to Nero, and is acquitted (2 Tim. 4:16-17) (6929). Paul remains in Rome and continues to share the Good News with all who come to him (6930).
     A Jewish rebellion against Roman rule begins with the seizure of Jerusalem by rebel leaders (6934).
     Paul and Peter, both in Rome, are warned by Jesus that they will soon die (6937).
     Paul writes his Second Letter to Timothy (6939).
     67, June 29: Paul, as a citizen of Rome, is executed by being beheaded. Peter, who was not a Roman citizen, is crucified upside down (6949).
     70, September 8: Titus, son of the Roman emperor Vespasian and commander of the Roman army in Judea, ends the Jewish rebellion after four years of fighting by taking Jerusalem and burning it to the ground (6978).
     73: The Romans take Masada and the last pocket of Jewish resistance to Roman rule ends (6992).