Thursday, October 4, 2018
Source: Esposito, John L (editor). The Oxford History of Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 691-696).
Muhammad is born.
Muhammad begins preaching in Mecca.
Migration (hijra) of Muslims from Mecca to Medina. Formation of first Islamic state. First year of Islamic calendar.
Battle of Badr: victory of outnumbered Muslims attributed to God.
Battle of Uhud: Meccan army defeats Muhammad and Muslims.
Battle of the Trench: Muhammad and Muslims defeat Meccans.
Muhammad becomes undisputed leader in Medina.
Muhammad becomes undisputed leader in Mecca.
Muhammad dies. Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or successor of Muhammad.
Rule by the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs: “normative period for Sunni Islam” (691).
Abu Bakr dies. Umar ibn al-Khattab second caliph.
Muslims take control of Jerusalem from Byzantine Empire.
Umar murdered. Uthman ibn Affan third caliph.
Quran given its definitive form.
Uthman murdered. Ali ibn Abi Talib fourth caliph.
Aisha leads rebellion against Ali but is defeated. First battles between Muslims.
Ali murdered. Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan becomes caliph.
Muslims take control of Africa.
Husayn, son of Ali and grandson of Muhammad, refuses to acknowledge Yazid, an Umayyad, as caliph. Yazid has Husayn beheaded. Husayn, beloved of Shiite Muslims, sets Shiite pattern of protest and persecution.
Under caliph Abd al-Malik, Dome of the Rock finished in Jerusalem.
Great Mosque of Damascus built.
Berber Muslims of Africa invade Iberia.
Battle of Tours: Charles Martel repulses Muslim invasion of Gallia.
Abbasids rebel against Umayyads and defeat them.
Abbasid rulers consolidate their control of the Orient and Egypt.
Golden age of Sunni Islam with creativity in law, art, agriculture, industry, and trade.
Umayyad leader Abd al-Rahman founds emirate of Cordoba in Iberia.
Al-Mansur founds Baghdad and makes it capital of Abbasid caliphate.
Jafar al-Sadiq, Shiite imam and founder of the Islamic school of law named after him, dies. Dispute over succession leads to division between Seveners and Twelvers.
Abu Hanifa, founder of school of law important later to Ottomans, dies.
Harun al-Rashid rules. Marks greatest power of Abbasid caliphate. Inspires The Thousand and One Nights.
Malik ibn Anas, founder of school of law later dominant in Iberia, Africa, and Egypt, dies.
Rabiah al-Adawiyah, female Sufi who combined mysticism, asceticism, and love of God, dies.
Muhammad al-Shafi, founder of school of Sunni law, dies.
Al-Mamum founds House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikmah) in Baghdad for translation of important manuscripts into Arabic.
Regional states form within Abbasid caliphate, including Iraq, Syria, and Egypt.
Abassid capital moved 78 miles (125 km) north from Baghdad to Samarra.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal, founder of school of law important to restorative Sunnis, dies.
Tulunids rule in Egypt and Syria.
Occultation of twelfth imam and end of political rule by Shiite imams.
Abd al-Rahman 3rd founds caliphate in Iberia.
Bayud dynasty rules in Mesopotamia and beyond.
Ikhshidid dynasty rules Egypt and Syria.
Fatimid (Shiite) dynasty rules Africa, Egypt, and Syria.
Almoravids rule southern Iberia and western Africa.
Al-Hakim, Fatamid caliph, has the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem destroyed.
Iberian caliphate ends.
Seljuk Turks rule in Mesopotamia and beyond.
Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, theologian structuring Sunni Islam in terms of Sufism.
Battle of Mankizert: Greek Christians lose control of Anatolia to Turkish Muslims.
Seljuk Turks rule Anatolia.
Seljuk Turks rule Syria.
Urban 2nd, pope, calls for first crusade.
Latin Christian crusaders capture Jerusalem and center a Christian kingdom there.
Sufi religious orders begin transforming Islamic society, culture, and personality.
Almohads rule southern Iberia and western Africa.
Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny, has Robert Ketton make first translation of Quran into Latin.
Ayyubids rule Egypt.
Saladin takes control of Egypt and restores Sunni Islam there.
Battle of Hittin: Saladin defeats Crusaders then recaptures Jerusalem.
Averroes (Ibn Rushd), philosopher, dies in Marrakesh, western Africa.
Almohads forced from Iberia.
Mamluks take control of Egypt and Syria.
Mongols destroy Baghdad.
Battle of Ayn Jalut (Spring of Goliath) in Jezreel Valley: Mamluks defeat Mongols.
Abbasids rule from Cairo.
Battle of Kosovo: Ottoman Muslims defeat Serbian Christians
Battle of Varna: Ottoman Muslims defeat Crusade of Varna and control Hellas.
Fall of Constantinople and end of Roman Empire.
Fall of Granada and end of Muslim power in Iberia.
Saadis rule western Africa.
Battle of Chaldiran: Ottomans seize control of eastern Anatolia and Mesopotamia from Safavids.
Ottomans take control of the Orient and Egypt.
Ottomans take Belgrade.
Suleyman the Magnificent rules Ottoman Empire at the height of its power.
Ottoman siege of Vienna fails.
Ottomans take Baghdad.
Battle of Lepanto: Christendom’s first major repulsion of Ottoman expansion.
Sinan builds Selimiya mosque in Adrianople (Edirne).
First trade treaty between English and Ottomans.
Treaty of Zsitva Torok: Hapsburgs acknowledge Ottoman control of Hungary and beyond.
Filalis (Alawis) rule western Africa.
Treaty of Qasr Shirin: establishes permanent border between Mesopotamia (Olympia) and Iran (Incognita).
Akhbari vs. Usuli debate.
Edirne Incident: Janissary power grows and sultan’s declines.
Ahmad al-Tijani founds new Sufi order in western Africa.
Wahhabi movement begins in Arabia.
Muhammad ibn Abdallah, ruler of Morocco, revives Islamic studies.
Muhammad Ali ibn al-Sanusi, ruler of Libya, founds Sufi school of Sanusiyyah tariqah and an Islamic state.
Selim 3rd, Ottoman ruler, introduces Tanzimat reforms.
Napoleon invades Egypt. Results in Muhammad Ali’s rise to power and westernization.
Europe expands its control of Caliphate.
French invade Algeria.
Ahmad ibn Idris, scholar and founder of Idrisiyyah movement, dies.
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, founder of Islamic Modernism, active.
Muhammad Abduh, cofounder of modernist Salafiyyah movement in Egypt.
Rashid Ridda, cofounder of Salafiyyah and Islamic Modernist movements, Egypt.
Abdulhamid 2nd, Ottoman ruler, advocates Pan-Islamism.
Urabi Revolt against British influence in Egypt leads to British occupation of it.
Young Turks in Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman Empire collapses following War of 1914 and Turkish Republic emerges.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk ends sharia courts.
Legal system based on Swiss and Italian laws replaces Islamic legal system in Turkey.
Islam disestablished in Turkey.
Hasan al-Banna founds Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.
National Pact of Lebanon apportions positions of political leadership to people based on religion.
State of Israel.
Egyptian police murder Hasan al-Banna.
Islam reestablished in Turkey.
Idris ibn al-Mahdi, grandson of Muhammad ibn Ali al-Sanusi, becomes ruler of newly created Kingdom of Libya.
Gamal Abd al-Nasser takes control of Egypt with support of shaykhs (sages) of al-Azhar.
Nasser attacks Muslim Brotherhood and executes writer Sayyid Qutb (1966).
Arab-Israeli war leads to Arab rejection of modernistic nationalism and socialism and restoration of Islamic traditions.
Muammar Qaddafi takes control of Libya.
Arson at al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem leads Faisal, ruler of Saudi Arabia, to call for a jihad against Israel.
Necmettin Erbakan founds National Salvation Party in Turkey to restore Islamic state and culture.
“Operation Badr”: battle of Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Muammar Qaddifi expresses his understanding of Islam in The Green Book.
Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) comes to power in Algeria.
Necmettin Erbakan comes to power in Turkey.