Notes on James Ussher, Annals of the World (1658).
515 BC: The second Temple in Jerusalem is finished (P1032).
514 BC: Darius (Ahasuerus) chooses Esther to be his new queen (Est. 2:16-17). The story of Esther unfolds during the course of this year (P1035).
502 BC: Ionian cities along the western coast of Anatolia rebel against Darius (P1055). The Athenians support the rebellion by providing 20 ships under an able commander (P1058).
500 BC: Athenians join the Ionians in attacking, overwhelming, and burning down the Persian provincial capital of Sardis. The Persian army pursues the Athenians and punishes them. Surviving Athenians abandon the Ionians and return home despite ongoing appeals for further assistance (P1060). When Darius hears of Athenian complicity in the burning of Sardis, he orders an assistant to say to him three times at every meal, “‘Sir, remember the Athenians’” (P1061).Pre-Socratic philosopher Anaxagoras is born on the Ionian island of Clazomenae on the western coast of Anatolia (P1063).
497 BC: The Persian navy and army conquer and destroy Miletus, center of the Ionian rebellion (P1073). The following year, the remaining rebellious cities of Ionia suffer the same fate (P1076).
490 BC: Battle of Marathon between a huge Persian army and a relatively small number of men from Platea and Athens under Miltiades. The Greeks achieve a stunning victory (P1093).
485 BC: Darius dies (P1099) and his son Xerxes succeeds him (P1100).
484 BC: The historian Herodotus is born in the city of Helicarnassus on the west coast of Anatolia (P1102).
480 BC: Xerxes marches leads his army and navy to conquer Hellenia. Under his command he has over thousands of ships, tens of thousands of cavalry, and hundreds of thousands of soldiers (P1012-1013).
Leonidas, king of Sparta, leads 300 Spartans, along with 200 men from Thespia and Thebes, against the Persian army at a chokepoint called Thermopylae. He and his men all die but not before delaying the Persian army for three days, killing 20,000 enemy soldiers, and acting heroically enough to be remembered to this day (P1021).
When the Persian army reaches Athens, they find the city deserted, loot it, then burn it down (P1123-1124).
Greek ships commanded by Themistocles defeat the much larger Persian navy at the Battle of Salamis (P1125).
After witnessing this naval disaster, Xerxes sends the remainder of his fleet to guard his bridge across the Hellespont between Europe and Asia. He then hastens the bulk of his army to cross it before any further disaster befalls him (P1132-1133). Famine and disease ravage the soldiers left behind to complete the conquest of Hellenia (P1136).
479 BC: The Greek army decisively defeats the Persian army at the Battle of Platea (P1153). News of these Greek victories encourages Ionian cities to renew their rebellion against the Persian empire (P1158).
473 BC: Xerxes is murdered. His son Artaxerxes becomes emperor (P1176).
467 BC: Ezra, priest and scribe, receives permission from Artaxerxes to go to Jerusalem to help the city recover its vitality (P1202). A large number of Jews in Babylon return with Ezra (Ezra 7:6-9, 8:1-14, 30) (P1203). The journey takes about four months (P1204).
454 BC: Artaxerxes also give Nehemiah permission to go to Jerusalem and help it. So begins the 70 weeks of years spoken by Gabriel to Daniel (Neh. 2:1-6, Dan. 9:24-25) (P1227). That same year he enables the people of Jerusalem to complete the rebuilding of the city’s wall despite internal and external enemies (Neh. 6:1-19) (P1234).
1st day, 7th month: Ezra reads the Law to all the Jews in and around Jerusalem (Neh. 8:1-12) (P1238).
442 BC: Nehemiah returns to the emperor’s service (Neh. 5:14, 13:6) (P1262). He soon returned and corrected faults that had so quickly appeared during his absence (Neh. 13) (P1263).
431 BC: The Peloponnesian War, pitting Athens and Sparta against one another, begins (P1276).
430 BC: A plague ravages Athens. Hippocrates aids victims (P1279).
428 BC: Pericles dies (P1284). Anaxagoras, his teacher, also dies (P1285).
425 BC: Artaxerxes dies and is succeeded by his son Xerxes (P1290).
424 BC: Xerxes is murdered by his brother (P1295).
416 BC: Malachi, last of the prophets until John the Baptist, helps Nehemiah call the Jews in Jerusalem back to Yahweh (P1305).
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