Conflicts in Hellenia continued with Thebans defeating Spartans in 371 and others defeating Thebans in 362. Finally this incessant warfare between the municipal states of Hellenia ended in 335 when Alexander 3rd of Macedon subdued them all.
That didn’t mean tensions immediately disappeared. In 399 Socrates was charged with disrespecting the gods and corrupting Athenian youth. Socrates was a smart guy, good storyteller, and brave soldier. But he also admired
Xenophon (ca 430-354?) was born near the city of
Xenophon returned to
Plato (ca 428-348) was born into a wealthy family living in
Plato wrote at least 25 dialogues and letters which still exist today. Two of his most famous dialogues are The Apology of Socrates and The Republic. The Socrates he features in his dialogues is based on the real person but freely modified to serve changing literary and philosophical purposes. Plato became and remains such a significant philosopher because he discussed such a wide range of topics with such insight.
Aristotle (384-322) wasn’t born in
He traveled in Anatolia, married, and did scientific research on the
While Aristotle tutored Alexander, Philip warred against other Hellenian municipal states and added an increasingly number of them to his kingdom.
Aristotle returned to
Alexander died in 323. Athenians expressed their resentment of Alexander’s control by charging Aristotle with the crime of disrespecting the gods. Remembering the trial and execution of Socrates, Aristotle chose to leave
Aristotle’s departure from
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