When Haydn was six years old, he was sent to live with a relative in a nearby town. His father wanted him to get an education in music and his relative was both a teacher and the choir director at a local church there. Haydn disliked being constantly hungry and wearing shabby clothes, but he did learn how to play the harpsichord and violin and enjoyed singing in the church choir.
In 1739 the music director of St. Stephen’s Cathedral in
By 1749 Haydn could no longer sing the high notes required of him. One day the director became furious with him and had him beaten, expelled from the choir, and thrown onto the streets. He was 17 and homeless.
Eventually he started getting hired to sing and play occasionally for the imperial court. This led finally to full-time employment in 1760 as the director of a small orchestra in an unimportant court. At this time he also entered into a lifelong but cheerless marriage.
Nicholas had Esterháza, a new palace, constructed in a very rural area about 60 miles (100 km) southeast of
The Esterházy family and its household, including Haydn, moved into the new palace in 1766. At first family and servants stayed there only during the summer and spent the rest of the year near the imperial court in
Nicholas expected his servant Haydn to write music, play it with members of the family, conduct the family’s orchestra of up to 20 instrumentalists, and even direct operatic performances. Nicholas gave him complete freedom as a composer. That, and the privilege of being able to rehearse his own music with his own orchestra, allowed Haydn to develop continually as a composer. This despite the fact that he lived in relative isolation from other composers, players, and critics of music. Works by Haydn during this period include his Cello Concerto No. 1 (c. 1763), Symphony No. 48 “Maria Theresia” (1769), and Symphony No. 45 “Farewell” (1772).
Haydn increasingly enjoyed an international reputation for excellence with the steady publication of his music. In 1779 he negotiated a new contract with Nicholas. Now Haydn would retain ownership of all his compositions, negotiate their publication, and contract with others to write music for them. This led him to write far fewer operas and far more quartets and symphonies because these would have broader international appeal. He paradoxically became Latin Christendom’s most popular yet most isolated composer.
Haydn loved visiting Vienna. He enjoyed the stimulating variety of conversations, diversions, and cultural events he found in the imperial capital. He also appreciated seeing friends. One good friend was Wolfgang Mozart. From 1784 they played string quartets together and Haydn wildly admired his genius as a composer. An especially close friend was a woman named Maria Anna whom Haydn met in 1789. Her death just four years later devastated him. He wrote Variations in F minor in her honor.
On his way there Joseph traveled through
In London, Haydn composed some of his best music (including his “Surprise” Symphony No.94), enjoyed enthusiastic audiences, made wonderful new friends, and got paid extraordinarily well. All involved enjoyed Haydn’s first trip to
By 1802 Haydn’s health no longer allowed him to compose. He continued to play the piano, enjoy visits with friends, and receive many public honors. A special public performance was held in his honor in 1808. As he entered the hall, he was greeted by his old student Ludwig van Beethoven. Antonio Salieri conducted the orchestra.
A French army under Napoleon attacked
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